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Org Behaviour Ch9

group - 2 or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives
formal group - designated work group defined by an organization's structure
example of a formal group - 6 members of an airline flight crew
informal group - group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determines; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact
example of an informal group - 3 employees in different departments who regularly have lunch together
command group - group composed of the individual's who report directly to a given manager
example of a command group - audit head and his 5 associates
task group - people working together to complete a job task
interest group - people working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned
example of an interest group - employees banding together for better work conditions
friendship groups - people brought together because they share 1 or more common characteristics
example of a friendship group - 2 people like the same band
social identity theory - perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of a group
in-group favoritism - perspective in which we see members of our in-group as better than other people, and people not in our in-group as all the same
characteristics that make social identity important to a person - 1. similarity 2. distinctiveness 3. status 4. uncertainty reduction 5 stage group development model -
5 distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
forming stage - first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty (testing the waters, what is the purpose of the group?, etc)
storming stage - characterized by intragroup conflict (accept existence of group but resist constraints, conflict over who controls group)
norming stage - characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness (common set of expectations with group behavior)
performing stage - during the stage the group is fully functional (less getting to know and more performing task on hand)
adjourning stage - final stage, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
punctuated-equilibrium model - set of phases temporary groups go through that involve transactions between inertia and activity
role - set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit
role perception - individual's view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation
role expectations - how others believe a person should act in a given situation
psychological contract - unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa
role conflict - situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations
norms - acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members
performance norm - provides explicit cues to how hard members should work, how to get job done, etc
example of the appearance norm - dresscode
example of social arrangement norm - with whom to eat lunch with
example of the resource allocation norm - distribution of resources like pay/equipment
reference groups - important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform
conformity - adjustment of one's behavior to align with the norms of the group
deviant workplace behavior - voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms, and in doing so, threatens the well being of the organization and its members
example of production deviant behavior - leaving early, wasting resources
example of political deviant behavior - blaming coworkers, showing favoritism
example of property deviant behavior - sabotage, stealing from organization
example of personal aggression deviant behavior - verbal abuse, sexual harassment
status - socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others
status characteristics theory - theory that states that differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups
sources status derives from - 1. power person wields over others 2. person's ability to contribute to a group's goals 3. individual's personal characteristics
social loafing - tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
cohesiveness - degree to which group members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in group
strengths of group decision making - more complete information and knowledge, increased diversity of views, increased acceptance of a solution
weaknesses of group decision making - time consuming, conformity pressures, dominated by 1 or few members, ambiguous responsibility
group think - phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternate courses of action
groupshift - change in decision risk between a group's decision and and individual decision that a member within the group would make
interacting groups - typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face
brainstorming - idea generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while with holding any criticism of those alternatives
nominal group technique - group decision making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion
electronic meething - meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes
Created by: poolguy84
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