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TLHS Phy Sci Unit 3

Properties of Atoms, Periodic Table, & Elements and Their Properties

Atom smallest part of an element that has all the properties of the element
nucleus positively charged center of the atom
proton positively charged particle in the nucleus
neutron particle in the nucleus, has no charge
electron negatively charged particle that surrounds the nucleus in a cloud
electron cloud area around the nucleus where electrons are found
Thomson model Cookie model: positive dough with chocolate chip electrons
Rutherford model Peach model: protons are the pit and electrons are the flesh
Bohr model Planet model: nucleus (with protons & neutrons inside) is the sun, and electrons are in orbit like the planets
Electron Cloud model Nucleus is surrounded by a "cloud" of electrons. Electrons have no fixed position
Atomic Number number of protons. used to identify each element
Atomic mass protons + neutrons
isotope elements with the same number of protons, but DIFFERENT numbers of neutrons
periodic table arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number
period row of the periodic table
group column of the periodic table
electron dot diagram element symbol with up to 8 dots for the electrons in the highest energy level
metal located on the left & middle of the periodic table
nonmetal located on the right of the periodic table
metalloid located between metals and nonmetals in/along a stair step line
valence electrons electrons available for bonding
metal elements that are: shiny malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity
malleable can be hammered or rolled into sheets
ductile can be drawn into wire
transition element elements in groups 3 - 12
inner transition element Lanthanides & Actinides - bottom two rows of the periodic table
nonmetal elements with properties that are opposite of metals. Usually gases or solids at room temp.
metalloid have some properties of metals and some of nonmetals
semiconductor can conduct electricity under certain conditions
Noble Gases group 18 on the periodic table
Halogens group 17 on the periodic table
Alkaline Earth metals group 2 on the periodic table
Alkali metals group 1 on the periodic table - does not include Hydrogen