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Neuro 8.25.09

rehab intro

Nagi model Disease > impairment > Functional limitation > disability
glutamate excitory neurotansmitter, primarily CNS
GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter, primarily CNS
Dopamine motor & cognitive neurotransmitter
norepinephrine sympathetic & CNS "fight or flight" - cardiac & nervous systems
CNS brain & spinal cord
PNS cranial & spinal nerves
upper motor neuron tracts located in brain
lower motor neuron from anterior horn to skeletal (brain stem down)
neuron basic unit
neuroglia support cells; astrocyte, oligodendrocytes, microglia
astrocyte vascular support (spider)
oligodendrocyte maintain myelin sheath, promote satilite cells
microglia macrophages post injury, migrate near capilaries
Cranial Nerve I olfactory
Cr N II optic
Cr N III Oculomotor
Cr N IV trochlear
Cr N V trigeminal
Cr N VI Abducens
Cr N VII facial
Cr N VIII Vestibulocochlear
Cr N IX glossoharyngeal
Cr N X Vagus
Cr N XI spinal accessory
Cr N XII hypoglossal
Olfactory smell
optic vision & pupillary reflexes
oculomotor movement of eye & lid
trochlear movement of the eye
trigeminal face, eye & mouth sensation & chewing
abducens abducts eye
facial taste & tongue sensations, facial expressions, eyelid closing
vestibulocochlear vestibular/cochlear function (hearing, balance & position of head)
glossopharyngeal sensory post third of tongue & pharynx. swallowing motor
vagus speech, swallowing muscle & gag reflex. sympathetic
spinal accessory larynx, upper trapezius & SCM
hypoglossal tongue movement
phrenic nerve innervates? diaphragm
largest component of the brain w/2 hemispheres cerebrum
depression in cerebrum sulci
ridges in cerebrum gyri
deep groove in cerebrum fissure
area of motor control- Brodmans area, uncomplicated & intricate movement; cognitive-intelligence, math calc, memory; executive function -trunk, postural adjustment, sequence, initiation of movement, vestibular & coordinated bilateral movement frontal lobe
what area of brain is responsible for sensory interpretation learning, input is given meaning parietal lobe in cerebrum
what area of brain is responsible for auditory, visual & memory temporal lobe of cerebrum
what area of the brain is responsible for visual & interpretation occipital lobe of cerebrum
what area of brain is responsible for attach meaning to input association where sensory lobe is able to......
what characteristics are in the left hemisphere? verbal & written expression, organization, math, behavior
what characteristics are in the right hemisphere? creativity, quick analysis of info, hand-eye coord, postural & spacial awareness, reason, perception of tone
what seperates the right and left hemisphere of brain? interhemispheric or medial longitudinal fissure
thalamus & hypothalamus are found where? diencephalon
thalamus does? bridge - relays info to appropriate portion of sensory cortex, and motor from BG & cerebellum
hypothalamus does? autonomic regulation, endocrine system, BP, hunger, thirst, sleep/wake cycles & temperature, emotion
function of limbic system assigns memory to senses, ties emotions & memory together, bottom part of lobes of brain
diencephalon function bridge to storage
basal ganglia regulates motor - postural, motor tone & control, volitional movement, cognitive function
"little brain" cerebellum
responsible for sensory and motor cerebellum
responsible for balance, proprioception & complex movement cerebellum
responsible for timing, sequence & force of movement, assists in maintaining balance & posture cerebellum
"remembers how to do it" cerebellum
connects diencephalon to pons, relay station between cerebellum, cord & cerebrum mid brain
relay station from cerebellum, cerebrum & cord, responsible for weight shifting & fine coordination pons
upper cord, carries messages, sensory, cardiopulm, facial control, reflexive vomitting (gag), sneezing & swallowing medulla
supplies blood to the anterior and lateral, cerebrum, face & eyes carotid
supplies blood posteriorly, cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum vertebral
connective tissue membrane meninges
tough, thick membrane surrounds the brain dura mater
middle seal surrounds cord & brain, middle layer arachnoid, betw dura mater & pia mater
thin, inner, vascular closely around brain and spinal cord pia mater
spaces betw meninges layers epidural, subdural, subarachnoid
system that protects and nourishes the brain, allows CSF to flow and cushion brain ventricular system
part of the ventricular system responsible for anterior frontal lobe, inferior temporal lobe, posterior occipital lobe lateral ventricle
system responsible for diencephalon 3rd ventricle
system responsble for stem & cerebellum 4th ventricle
link from brain to body, extends from medulla to L1-2 spinal cord
carry signal from brain to periphery efferent fibers
opposite of efferent, carry information to the CNS afferent fibers
terminal end of spinal cord is? ends where? conus medularis, ends at L1-2
extends from end of spinal cord, extension of nerves cauda equina
posterior horn for ______response sensory
anterior horn ______response motor
~ T1-L2 and autonomic response is in______ lateral horn
trunk & LE proprioception, 2 pt discrimination, vibration & graphesthesia in what tract of spinal cord? Sensory, Fasciculus Gracilis
trunk, neck & UE proprioception, 2 pt discriminiation, vibration & graphesthesia in what tract of spinal cord? Sensory, fasciculus cuneatus
ipsi & contrallatral proprioception from what spinal cord tract? spinocerebellar
pain, light tough & temperature in what spinal cord tract? spinothalmic
ipsilateral voluntary motor movement in what tract of spinal cord? motor, coticospinal
contralateral voluntary fine motor movement in what tract of spinal cord? motor, lateral
posture & tone in what tract of spinal cord? rubrospoinal
contralateral postural tone, response to audiovisual from what tract in spinal cord? tectospinal
ipsilateral postural movement, repsonse to head movement, what spinal cord tract? vestibulospinal
spindle response, LE flexion & extension response relation to posture & position occurs in what spinal cord tract? reticulospinal
deep muscle, tendon, ligament, joint & fascia has what kind of receptor? proprioceptor
noxious stimuli is from what type of receptor? nociceptors
superficial skin & subcutaneous tissue receptor is? exteroceptors
light receptor? photic receptor
parallel to fibers, detects stretch of belly of muscle, velocity responsive muscle spindle
located @ muscle-tendon junction, monitors tension GTO, golgi tendon organ
response to external percussion, involuntary, predictable, biceps, brachioradialis, triceps, patella, achilles reflex, does not go thru brain
course including receptor afferent fiber, efferent fiber & responding muscle, no cortical involvement arc
patterned area of skin with corresponding dorsal root dermatome
group of muscles w/corresponding nerve root myotome
neural & hormonal control, regulates reproduction, circulation, respiration, digestion, metabolic process, metabolic, center of operations stem & hypothalamus, communications ctr in cord, INVOLUNTARY automated response to stimuli to MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS autonomic nervous system - ANS
cranioscatral regions of CNS, homeostasis, quiets you down, lowers HR parasympathetic
"fight or flight", fibers @ SC t/o thoracolumbar region, response to stress sympathetic
filter, organize & intergrate, brain organizes, interprets & utilizes, guides future responses, happens w/o thought sensory integration
input "during the movement" feedback
proactive based on experience feedforward
Created by: djbari



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