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7Memory, part Chap4

terms

QuestionAnswer
amnesia a failure of memory caused by physical injury, disease, drug use, or psychological trauma
basic level the level of categorization that can be retrieved from memory most quickly and used most efficiently
chunking the process of taking single items of information and recoding them on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle
concepts mental representations of kinds or categories of items and ideas
contextual distinctiveness the assumption that the serial position effect can be altered by the context and the distinctiveness of the experience being recalled
declarative memory memory for information such as facts and events
elaborative rehearsal a technique for improving memory by enriching the encoding information
encoding the process by which a mental representation is formed in memory
encoding specificity the principle that subsequent retrieval of information is enhanced if cues received at the time of recall are consistent with those present at the time of encoding
engram the physical memory tract for information in the brain
episodic memories long-term memories for autobiographical events and the contexts in which they occurred
exemplars members of categories that people have encountered
explicit uses of memory conscious effort to encode or receive information through memory process
iconic memory memory system in the visual domain that allows large amounts of information to be stored for very brief durations
implicit uses of memory availability of information through memory processes without conscious effort to encode or recover information
level of processing theory a theory that suggests that the deeper the level at which information was processed, the more likely it is to be retrieved
long term memory (LTM) memory processes associated with the preservation of information for retrieval at any later time
memory the mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information
metamemory implicit or explicit knowledge about memory abilities and effective memory strategies; cognition about memory
mnemonics strategies or devices that use a familiar information during the encoding of new information to enhance subsequent access to the information in memory
primacy effect improved memory for items at the start of a list
priming in the assessment of implicit memory, the advantage conferred by prior exposure to a word or situation
proactive interference circumstances in which past memories make is more difficult to encode and retrieve new information
procedural memory memory for how things get done; the way perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills are acquired, retained, and used
prototype the most representative example of a category
recall a method of retrieval in which an individual is required to reproduce the information previously presented
recency effect improved memory for items at the end of a list
recognition a method of retrieval in which an individual is required to identify stimuli as having been experienced
reconstructive memory the process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation
retrieval the recovery of stored information from memory
retrieval cues internally or externally generated stimuli available to help with the retrieval of memory
retroactive interference circumstances in which the formation of new memories makes it more difficult to recover older memories
schemas general conceptual frameworks, or clusters of knowledge, regarding objects, people, and situations; knowledge packages that encode generalizations about the structure of the environment
semantic memories generic, categorical memories, such as the meanings of words and concepts
serial position effect a characteristic of memory retrieval in which the recall of the beginning and end items on the list is often better than recall of items appearing in the middle
short term memory (STM) memory processes associated with preservation of recent experiences and with retrieval of information from long-term memory; short term memory is of limited capacity and stores information for only short length of time without rehearsal
storage the retention of encoded material over time
transfer-appropriate processing the perspective that suggests that memory is best when the type of processing carried out at encoding matches the processes carried out at retrieval
working memory a memory resource that is used to accomplish tasks such as reasoning and language comprehension; consists of phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive
cornea transparent bulge on the front of the eye
aqueous humor clear liquid in the anterior chamber
pupil an opening in the opaque iris
iris the color pigment on the lens
lens a bean shaped crystalline that controls the amount of light entering the eye
retina thin sheet that lines the rear wall of the eyeball
accommodation the process by which the ciliary muscles change the thickness of the lens of the eye to permit variable focusing on near and distant objects
photoreceptors receptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to light
rods photoreceptors concentrated in the periphery of the retina that are most active in dim illumination, and responsive to movement
cones photoreceptors concentrated in the center of the retina that are responsible for visual experience under normal viewing conditions for all experiences of color
dark adaptation the gradual improvement of the eyes’ sensitivity after a shift in illumination from light to near darkness
fovea area of the retina that contains densely packed cones and forms the point of sharpest vision
bipolar cells nerve cells in the visual system that combine impulses from many receptors and transmit the results to ganglion cells
ganglion cells cells in the visual system that integrate impulses from many bipolar cells in a single firing rate
horizontal cells the cells that integrate information across the retina; rather than sending signals toward the brain, horizontal cells connect receptors to each other
amacrine cells cells that integrate information across the retina; rather than sending signal toward the brain; link bipolar cells to there bipolar cells and ganglion cells to other ganglion cells
blind spot the place at the back of the eye where a bundle of nerves exits the eye, also known as the optic disc, contains no cells at all
optic nerve the axons of the ganglion cells that carry information from the eye toward the brain
receptive field the area of the visual field to which a neuron in the visual system responds
hue the dimension of color space that captures the qualitative experience of the color of light
saturation the dimension of color space that captures the purity and vividness of color sensations
brightness the dimension of color space that captures the intensity of light
complementary colors colors opposite each other on the color circle; when all combined they create white light
trichromatic theory the theory that there are three types of color receptors that produce the primary color sensations red, green, and blue
opponent-process theory the theory that all color experiences arise from three systems, each of which includes two “opponent” elements (red vs. green, blue vs. yellow, black vs. white)
endorphins chemical released in the brain that controls your experience of pain; comparative to the drug called morphine
Law of proximity people group together the nearest (most proximal) elements
law of similarity people group together the most similar of elements
law of good continuation people experience lines as continuous even when they are interrupted
law of closure people tend to fill in small gaps to experience objects as wholes
law of common fate people tend to group together objects that appear to be moving in the same direction
Interposition (occlusion), relative size, size/distance relation, and linear perspective are all examples of what type of cues? ANSWER Pictorial cues
Olfactory Bulb The center where odor-sensitive receptors sent their signals, located just below the frontal lobes of the cortex.
Pheromones Chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of the species that often serve as long-distance sexual attractors.
Cutaneous Senses The skin senses that register sensations or pressure, warmth, and cold.
Vestibular Sense The sense that tells how one’s own body is oriented in the world with respect to gravity.
Kinesthetic Sense The sense concerned with bodily positions and movement of the body parts relative to one another.
Gate-Control Theory A theory about pain modulation that proposes that certain cells in the spinal cord act as gates to interrupt and block some pain signals while sending others to the brain.
Stimulus-driven capture A determinant of why people select some parts of sensory input for further processing; occurs when features of stimuli – objects in the environment – automatically capture attention, independent of the local goals of a perceiver .
Dichotic listening An experimental technique in which a different auditory stimulus is simultaneously presented to each ear.
Gestalt Psychology A school of psychology that maintains that psychological phenomena can be understood only when viewed as organized, structured wholes, not when broken down into primitive perceptual elements.
Phi Phenomenon The simplest form of apparent motion, the movement illusion in which one or more stationary lights going on and off in succession and perceived as a single moving light.
Retinal Disparity The displacement between the horizontal positions of corresponding images in the two eyes.
Convergence The degree to which the eyes turn inward fixate on an object.
Relative Motion Parallax A source of information about depth in which the relative distances of objects from a viewer determine the amount of direction of their relative motion in the retinal image.
Perceptual Constancy The ability to retain an unchanging percept of an object despite variations in the retinal image.
Size Constancy The ability to perceive the true size of an object despite variations in the size of its retinal image.
Shape Constancy The ability to perceive the true shape of an object despite variations in the size of the retinal image.
Lightness constancy The tendency to percieve the whiteness, grayness, or blackness of objects as constant across changing levels of illuninations.
Bottom-up Processing Perceptual analyses based on the sensory data available in the environment; results of analysis are passed upward toward more abstract representations.
Top-down processing Perceptual processes in which information from an individual’s past experience, knowledge, expectations, motivations, and background influence the way a perceived object is interpreted and classified.
Set is a temporary readiness to perceive or react to a stimulus in a particular way.
Created by: lmnhodgins