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McCrary Unit 9

Devlopmental Psych Unit AP Psychology, 18-19

developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan
nature vs nurture argument of how much genes predispose our reactions and the way we think/learn/act, interrelationships determine our choices/predispositions
continuity and stages the concept that human development is a slow, continuous shaping process
stability and change we experience varying degrees of stability and change in our life. Temperament is stable, and as people grow older personality gradually stabilizes. Social attitudes, confidence(adolescence) change
zygote the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks through the second month
teratogens (monster maker) agents, such as chemicals/viruses, that can reach the embryo/fetus during prenatal development and cause them harm
fetus the developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth
fetal alcohol syndrome(FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out of proportion head and abnormal facial features
rooting reflex when something touches a baby's cheek babies turn towards that touch, open their mouths, and root for a nipple
habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure a visual stimulus, and their interest wanes /they look away sooner
maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
pruning process a use it or lose it process shuts down unused links/strengthens others
infantile amnesia our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday
cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
accommodation adapting our current understandings(schemas) to incorporate new info
Piaget's theory of cognitive development cognitive development has four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
sensorimotor stage in Piaget's theory, the stage(birth-2 years), during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object permeneance the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage(2-6 or 7) during which a child learns language but dies not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
conservation the principle(which Piaget believed to be part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
egocentricism in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
theory of mind people's ideas about their own/other's mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
autism spectrum disorder(ASD) a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixed interests and repetitive behaviors
concrete operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage in cognitive development(6 or 7-11)during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development(beginning about 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
stranger anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning at about 8 mo. of age
attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Henry and Margaret Harlow researchers who bred monkeys for learning studies-studied attachment, preferences, touch, normal development (cloth covered cages vs food givers)
critical period an optimal period early in life of an organism when exposure to a certain stimuli/experiences produces development
imprinting the process by which certain animals form string attachments during an early-life critical period
temperament a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
basic trust according to Erik Erikson, as sense that the world is predictable/trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
self concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question: "who am I?"
authoritarian parents that impose rules and expect obedience
permissive parents who submit to their children's desires; few demands and little punishments
authoritative parents who are both demanding and responsive. Exert authority by setting/enforcing rules, but also explain reasons for rules. With older kids, they encourage open discussion of rules and allow exceptions
gender the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a person defines male and female
aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
gender role a set of expected behaviors for males or for females
role a set of expectations(norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to act or behave
gender identity our sense of being male or female
social learning theory the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating, and by being rewarded and punished
gender typing the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
transgender an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity/expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
Kolberg's levels of moral thinking 3 basic levels of moral thinking that occurs in developing people: pre conventional, conventional, and post conventional
pre conventional the moral stage which is involved in self interest; obeying rules to avoid punishment
conventional the moral stage in which one upholds laws/rules to gain social approval, maintain social order
post conventional the moral stage in which one's actions reflect belief in basic rights , self-defined ethical principles; "explains the why"
identity our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescents's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
social identity the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of the answer to "who am I" that comes from our group memberships
Erikson's stages of psychological development infancy(trust/mistrust)toddlerhood(autonomy/shame)preschool(initiative/guilt)elementary school(competence/inferiority)adolescence(identity/role confusion)y. adulthood(intimacy/isolation)m. adulthood(generativity/stagnation)l. adulthood(integrity/despair)
intimacy in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
emerging adulthood for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
X chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men/women, females have 2, men 1. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female kid
Y chromosome sex chromosome found in males. When paired with an x chromosome from mom it produces a male child
testosterone most important of male sex hormones. Both males/females have it, but additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and development of male sex characteristics in puberty
puberty the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics the body structures(ovaries, testes, external genitals), that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
spermarche landmark of puberty; the first ejaculation in boys/males
menarche landmark of puberty in females; the first menstrual period
AIDS(acquired immune deficiency syndrome) a life threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS depletes the immune system, leaving people vulnerable to infections
sexual orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex(homosexual orientation), the other sex(heterosexual orientation), or both sexes(bisexual orientation)
menopause the time of natural cessation of menstruation, also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
cross-sectional study a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal study research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time
social clock the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Created by: abyrd6067
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