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### Ch 6 - LOWER EXTREMITY

In an AP axial toes projection, the ____ _____ width and midshaft ______ are equal on both sides of the phalanges. soft tissue, concavity
In an AP axial toes projection, the ___ and ____ joints are open and the phalanges are seen without foreshortening. IP, MTP
In an AP axial toes projection, the ____ joint is at the center of the exposure field for a toe projection and ____ MTP joint is at the center when all toes are imaged. MTP, 3rd
If the toe is medially rotated for a right AP axial toe projection, the ______ side of the toe demonstrates the greatest soft tissue width and the ______ side demonstrates the greatest phalangeal midshaft concavity lateral, lateral
To obtain open joint spaces on an AP axial toe projection, align the CR _______to the joint space and align the joint space ______to the IR. parallel, perpendicular
In an AP oblique toes projection, twice as much soft tissue width and more phalangeal and metatarsal concavity are present on the side of the digit rotated ____ _____ the IR. away from
In an AP oblique toes projection, _____ joint is at the center of the exposure field for a toe projection and 3rd MTP joint is at the center when all toes are imaged. MTP
What degree of patient toe obliquity is used for an AP oblique toe projection? 45 degrees
In what direction are the foot and toe rotated for a 1st through 3rd AP oblique toe projection? medially
In a lateral toe projection, _______surface of the proximal phalanx demonstrates more concavity than the ________surface and the condyles of the proximal phalanx are superimposed. posterior, anterior
In an AP axial foot projection, joint spaces between the _____ and _______ cuneiforms is open and about ____of the talus is superimposing the calcaneus. medial, intermediate, 1/3
Will medial or lateral foot rotation result in the talus moving away from the calcaneus? medial
Will medial or lateral foot rotation result in increased superimposition of the MT bases? lateral
What degree of proximal CR angulation is required for an AP axial foot projection to demonstrate open TMT joint spaces? 5-15
In an AP oblique foot projection, the ____ _____ and the _-___ intermetatarsal joint spaces are open. cuboid-cuneiform and the 2nd-5th
In an AP oblique foot projection, tarsi sinus and ____metatarsal tuberosity are visualized. 5th
As a foot is rotated medially from an AP projection, the 1st MT base rotates _______ the 2nd MT base and the 2nd-3rd MT heads move (closer to/farther away from) one another. beneath, closer to
In a lateral foot projection, talar domes are superimposed, the _____________ joint is open and the distal fibula is superimposed by the posterior half of the distal tibia. tibiotalar
The height of the medial longitudinal arch can be determined on a lateral foot projection with accurate positioning by measuring the amount of cuboid that appears ______to the ________. posterior, navicular
The average foot projection demonstrates approximately____inch of the cuboid posterior to the navicular. 1/2
Against what aspect of the foot is the IR placed for a standing lateromedial projection of the foot/ medial
What surface of the foot is aligned parallel with the IR for a lateromedial projection of the foot with accurate positioning? lateral
In an axial calcaneus projection, the ____________joint is open and the calcaneal tuberosity is demonstrated without distortion. talocalcaneal
When the CR and foot are accurately aligned, the CR is aligned ____ to the talocalcaneal joint space and ____to the calcaneal tuberosity. parallel, perpendicular
Accurate centering on an axial calcaneal projection is accomplished by centering the CR tot he midline of the foot at the level of the ____ ___ _____. 5th metatarsal base
In a lateral calcaneus projection, the tibiotalar joint space is open and the distal fibula is superimposed by the ______half of the ditsal tibia. posterior
In a lateral calcaneus projection, the long axis of the foot is positioned at a 90 degree angle with the____ ____. lower leg
In an AP ankle projection, the medial mortise is open and the tibia superimposes _____ of the distal fibula. half
In an AP ankle projection, the tibiotalar joint space is _____and the tibia is demonstrated without foreshortening. open
In an AP oblique ankle projection, mortise oblique (15-20 degree) the distal fibula is demonstrated without _____superimposition demonstrating an open _____mortise and the lateral and medial malleoli are in profile. The tibia superimposes 1/4 of the ___. talar, lateral, fibula
In an AP oblique ankle projection, the calcaneus is visualized _____to the mortise and fibula. distal
Approximately how much ankle obliquity is needed for a mortise AP oblique ankle projection with accurate positioning? 15-20 degrees
In which direction is the patient's leg rotated for a mortise AP oblique ankle with accurate positioning? medially (internally)
In a lateral ankle projection, the talar domes are superimposed, the tibiotalar joint is ______ and the distal fibula is superimposed by the posterior half of the ____ _____. open, distal tibia
In a lateral ankle projection, the ______ ______ is at the center of the exposure field. tibiotalar
To obtain a lateral ankle projection with accurate positioning, the patient's leg is extended, the lower leg is positioned ____ to the imaging table and the foot is dorsiflexed with its lateral surface aligned parallel to the IR. parallel
In an AP lower leg projection, the tibia superimposes ____of the fibular head and ____of the distal tibia. 1/4, 1/2
In an AP lower leg projection, the fibular midshaft is _____of tibial superimposition. free
Are the femorotibial and tibiotalar joint spaces closed on an AP lower leg projection with accurate positioning? yes
The ankle joint is located at the level of the _____ _____. medial malleolus
The knee joint is located 1 inch ____to the ___ _____. distal, medial epicondyle
In a lateral lower leg projection, the tibia superimposes____ of the fibular head and the ______ aspects of the distal tibia and fibula are aligned. 1/2, posterior
In a lateral lower leg projection, the fibular ______ is free of tibial superimposition. midshaft
The _____ _____ is centered to the collimated field on a lateral lower leg projection with accurate positioning. tibial midshaft
In an AP knee projection, the medial and lateral femoral epicondyles are in _______, the femoral condyles are symmetrical, the intercondylar eminence is centered withing the intercondylar fossa and the tibia is superimposed over _____if the fibular head. profile, 1/2
In an AP knee projection, the knee joint space is open, the anterior and posterior distal tibial margins are aligned and the fibular head is demonstrated approximately 1/2 inch distal to the _____ _____. tibial plateau
In an AP knee projection, the patella lies just ______ to the patellar surface of the femur and i situated slightly ______to the knee midline. proximal, lateral
A grid is used for a knee projection if the patient's knee measures more than _______cm. 10
An AP knee projection is obtained by placing the patient supine with the knee _______and leg internally rotated until the femoral epicondyles are placed _______to the IR. extended, parallel
In a lateral knee projection, contrast and density are adequate to demonstrate the _________fat pad. suprapatellar
In a lateral knee projection, the patella is situated ______ to the patellar surface of the femur and the patellofemoral joint is open proximal
In a lateral knee projection, the distal articulating surfaces of the medial and lateral ______ _______ are aligned and the knee joint space is open. femoral condyles
In a lateral knee projection, the anterior and posterior surfaces of the the medial and lateral femoral condyles are aligned and the tibia superimposes 1/2 of the ______ ______. fibular head
When a patient is erect, the distal femoral condylar surfaces are aligned ______ to the floor and the femoral shaft inclines ______ approximately 10-15 degrees. parallel, medially
A patient who demonstrates the greatest femoral inclination will have a_______ pelvis and ______ femoral shaft length. wide, short
In a tangential (merchant method) patella projection, the patellae, anterior femoral condyles and intercondylar sulci are seen superiorly and the _______femoral condyle demonstrates slightly more height than the ______condyle. lateral, medial
In a tangential (merchant method) patella projection, the patellofemoral joint spaces are______ with no superimposition of the upper anterior thigh soft tissue, patellae or tibial tuberosities. open
In an AP distal femur projection, the medial and lateral epicondyles are in ______, the femoral condyles are symmetrical in shape and the tibia superimposes 1/2 of the fibular head profile
In an AP proximal femur projection, the ischial spine is aligned with the _____ _____ and the obturator foramen is open. pelvic brim
In an AP proximal femur projection, the femoral neck is demonstrated without foreshortening, the ____trochanter is in profile laterally and the ______trochanter is comletey superimposed by the proximal femur. greater, lesser
In a lateral distal femur projection, the anterior and posterior margins of the ______and ______ condyles are aligned. lateral and medial
In a lateral proximal femur projection, the lesser trochanter is in profile _______ and the femoral neck and head are superimposed over the ______ _______. medially, greater trochanter
A lateral distal femur projection is obtained by rotating the patient onto the ______aspect of the affected femur until an imaginary line connecting the femoral epicondyles is aligned _______to the IR. lateral, perpendicular
Created by: ashollings