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Pat assessment final

QuestionAnswer
Ankle ligament instability tests Drawers foot sign. Medial instability. Lateral instability.
Name the test: Gapping secondary to trauma when the tibia is pushed indicates a tear of the anterior talofibular lig­ament. Gapping when the tibia is pulled indicates a posterior talofibular ligament tear. Drawers foot sign
Name the test: With the patient supine, grasp the foot and passively invert it. If gapping secondary to trauma is present, suspect a tear of the anterior talofibular and/or calcaneo­fibular ligament Lateral stability test (ankle)
Name the test: With the patient supine, grasp the foot and passively evert it. If gapping secondary to trauma is present, suspect a tear of the deltoid ligament Medial stability test (ankle)
Which test wold you use for an Achilles tendon rupture? Thompson’s test
Name the test: Instruct the prone patient to flex the knee. Squeeze the calf muscles against the tibia and fibula Thompson’s test. Indicates achilles tendon rupture
CN I Olfactory nerve. Sensory. Responsible for the sense of smell.
CN II Optic nerve. Sensory Visual acuity and peripheral vision
CN III, IV, VI Oculomotor (motor), trochlear(motor) and abducens(motor) nerves. Tested together. All associated with ocular and pupillary motility
CN V Trigeminal nerve. (Motor and sensory). Motor; muscle of mastication (masseter, peterygoid, and temporal muscles). Sensory; three branches: the ophthalmic(V1), maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3).
CN VII Facial nerve (both)
CN VIII Auditory or vestibular (sensory)
CN IX Glosspharyngeal (Both)
CN X Vagus (both)
CN XI Spinal accessory (motor)
CN XII Hypoglossal (motor)
Meniscus instability tests Apley’s compression test. McMurrays test. Bounce home test. Thessaly
Plica, or Patella test Hughston Plica test
Ligamentous instability of the knee tests Drawer’s sign, Lachman’s, Apley’s distraction, adduction stress test, and abduction stress test
Patellofemoral dysfunction tests Patella grinding test, patella apprehension test, Dryer’s test.
Knee joint effusion tests Patella ballottement test. Stroke test. Fluctuation test.
Name the test:With the patient prone, flex the leg to 90°. Stabilize the patient's thigh with your knee. Grasp the pa­tient's ankle and place downward pressure while you internally and externally rotate the leg. Apley’s compression test (meniscus test)
name the test: With the patient supine, flex the leg. Externally rotate the leg as you extend; internally rotate as you extend. McMurray’s test (meniscus)
Name the test: With the patient supine, instruct the patient to flex the leg. When the leg is flexed, cup your hand around the patient's heel and instruct him to relax his muscles and allow the knee to drop. Bounce home test (meniscus)
Name the test: With the patient supine, grasp the patient's leg. Flex and medially rotate the leg. With your opposite hand, move the patella medially with the heel of your hand and palpate the medial femoral condyle with the fingers of the same hand. Flex Hughston plica test
Name the test: With the patient supine, flex the leg and place the foot on the table. Grasp behind the flexed knee and pull and push on the leg. The hamstring tendons must be relaxed for this test to be accurate. Drawer’s sign test (anterior cruciate lig tear)
Name the test: With the patient supine and the knee in 30° of flexion, grasp the patient's thigh with one hand to stabilize it. With the opposite hand, grasp the tibia and pull it forward Lachmans (anterior cruciate lig tear)
Name the test: With the patient prone, flex the leg to 90°. Stabilize the patient's thigh with your knee. Pull on the patient's ankle while internally and externally rotating the leg. Apley’s distraction test (ligament instability of the knee)
Name the test: With the patient supine, stabilize the medial thigh. Grasp the lower leg and push it medially. Also perform this test with the knee in 20° to 30° of flexion Adduction stress test
Name the test: With the patient supine, stabilize the lateral thigh. Grasp the lower leg and push it laterally. Also perform this test with the knee in 20° to 30° of flexion Abduction stress test
Name the test: With the patient supine, move the patella medially and laterally while pressing down Patella grinding test
Name the test: With the patient supine, instruct him or her to raise the leg actively. If the patient can­ not raise the leg, stabilize the quadriceps tendon just above the knee. At this point, instruct the pa­tient to raise the leg again Dryer’s test(traumatic fracture of the patella)
Name the test: With one hand, encircle and press down on the superior aspect of the patella. With the other hand, push the patella against the femur with your finger Patella ballottement test (knee effusion)
Tests for congenital hip dysplasia Allis test. Ortolani’s click test, telescoping sign.
Test for hip fractures Anvil test
Tests for hip contracture Thomas. Rectus femoris contracture test. Ely’s test. Ober’s test. Piriformis test.
Tests for general hip joint lesions Patrick (faber) test. Trendelenburg test. Scouring test. Laguerre’s test. Hibb’s test
Name the test: With the infant supine, flex the knees. The patient's feet should approximate each other on the table Allis test (congenital hip dysplasia)
Name the test: With the infant supine, grasp both thighs with your thumbs on the lesser trochanters. Then flex and abduct the thighs bilaterally Ortolani’s click test (congenital hip dysplasia)
Name the test: With the patient supine, tap the inferior calcaneus with your fist Anvil test for hip fracture
Name the test: Instruct the supine patient to approximate each knee to the chest one at a time. Palpate the quadri­ceps muscles on the unflexed leg Thomas test. Hip flexion contracture.
Name the test: Instruct the patient to lie supine on the examination table with the leg off the table and flexed to 90°. Instruct the patient to flex the opposite knee to his chest and hold it. Palpate the quadriceps mus­cles of the leg that is flexed of Rectus femoris contracture test.
Name the test: Instruct the patient to lie prone on the examination table. Then grasp the patient's ankle and pas­sively flex the knee to the buttock Ely’s test. (Hip contracture test)
Name the test: With the patient side-lying, abduct the patient's leg and then release it. Per­form this test bilaterally. Ober’s test (hip contracture of the tensor fasciae latae muscle or iliotibial band)
Name the test: Instruct the patient to lie on the side opposite the leg being tested. Instruct the patient to flex the hip to 60° with the knee fully flexed. With one hand, stabilize the hip; with the other hand, press down on the knee Piriformis test.
Name the test: With the patient supine, flex the leg and place the foot flat on the table. Grasp the femur and press it into the acetabular cavity. Next, cross the patient's leg to the opposite knee. Stabilize the oppo­site anterior superior iliac spine a Patrick (faber) (general hip joint lesions)
Name the test: With the patient standing, grasp the patient's waist and place your thumbs on the posterior superior iliac spine of each ilium. Next, instruct the patient to flex one leg at a time Trendelenburg test (general hip lesions) hip joint integrity and gluteus medius muscle
Name the test: With the patient supine, flex the patient's hip to 90°, fully flex the knee, and internally rotate the hip. Assuming the patient has no injury or pathology to the knee, apply downward and lateral pressure on the knee Scouring test (general hip lesions)
Name the test: With the patient supine, flex the hip and knee to 90°. Rotate the thigh outward and the knee medially. Press down on the knee with one hand, and pull up on the ankle with the other hand. Laguerre’s test acetabular cavity (hip lesions)
Which tests indicate a sacroiliac sprain Gaenslens. Lewin Gaenslens. Yeoman. Sacroiliac stretch test and sacrotuberous ligament stress test
Test for general sacroiliac lesions Hibbs. Sign of the buttock. Pelvic rock test (iliac compression test)
Name the test: With the patient supine and the affected side near the edge of the table, instruct the patient to ap­proximate the knee to the chest on the unaffected side. Then place downward pressure on the affected thigh until it is lower than the edg Gaenslens test (anterior sacroiliac sprain)
Name the test: Instruct the patient to lie on the unaffected side and flex the inferior leg. Take the supe­rior leg and extend it while you stabilize the lumbosacral joint Lewins-Gaenslens test (anterior sacroiliac sprain)
Name the test: With the patient prone, grasp the patient's lower leg and passively flex the knee, then extend the hip Yeoman’s test. Anterior sacroiliac sprain
Name the test: With the patient supine, cross the patient's arms and apply posterior and lateral pressure to the an­terior superior iliac spine of each ilium Sacroiliac stretch test (strain of the anterior sacroiliac ligaments)
Name the test: Place the patient supine. Fully flex the patient's knee and hip and adduct and internally rotate the hip. With your opposite hand palpate the sacrotuberous ligament, which runs from the posterior aspect of the sacrum to the ischial tube Sacrotuberous ligament stress test
Name the test: With the patient side-lying, exert a strong downward pressure on the ilium. Perform this test bilat­erally Pelvic rock test (sacroiliac joint lesion)
Name the test: With the patient supine, perform a passive straight leg raising test. If restriction is found, flex the patient's knee and see if hip flexion increases Sign of the buttock. (Distinguish lumbar from SI) If hip flexion does not increase when the knee is flexed, the sacroiliac joint is dys­functional.
L1-L3 No reflex test. Muscle test is iliopsoas & quadriceps. Dermatome test inner thigh
L4 Reflex=patella knee jerk. Muscle anterior tibial. Dermatome test inner foot
L5 Reflex NO. Muscle extensor hallis. Dermatome test top of the foot
S1 Reflex achilles. Muscle perineal. Dermatome lateral foot
Tests for lumbar joint dysfunction Segmental instability test
Tests for lumbar fracture Spinal percussion test
Lumbar nerve root and sciatic nerve irritation/compression tests Straight leg raising test. Lesegue’s test. Slump test. Buckling sign. Femoral nerve traction test. Bragard’s test. Fajersztajn’s test. Bechterew’w test. Minor’s sign. Bowstring sign. Piriformis test. Kemp’s test. Heel toe walk test.
Space occupying lesions tests Valsalva’s maneuver. Dejerine’s triad
Differential diagnosis: lumbar Vs sacroiliac involvement tests Goldthwaith’s test. Sign of the buttock test
Name the test: Place the patient prone with the legs over the examination table and the feet resting on the floor. Press down on the lumbar spine. Next, instruct the patient to lit the legs off the floor, and again press down on the lumbar spine Segmental instability test. (Joint disfunction test) The test is positive if pain is elicited when pressure is applied to the lumbar spine with the feet on the floor and the pain disappears when the feet are off the floor and the paravertebral muscles
Name the test: With the patient seated and slightly bent forward, tap the spinous process and associated musculature of each of the lumbar vertebrae with a neurological reflex hammer. Spinal percussion test (lumbar fracture)
Name the test: With the patient supine, place and zero out an inclinometer at the tibial tuberosity and raise the pa­tient's leg to the point of pain or 90°, whichever comes first Straight leg raising test. (Lumbar or sciatic nerve compression/ irritation
Name the test: With the patient supine, flex the patient's hip with the leg flexed. Keeping the hip flexed, extend the leg Lasague’s test (sciatic Radiculopathy)
Name the test: Instruct the patient to sit on the examination table with hands behind the back. Instruct the patient to slump forward while you hold the chin level to prevent cervical flexion. Apply overpressure with one hand to the shoulder to maintain Slumps test. Meningeal tract irritation
Name the test: With the patient supine, perform a straight leg raising test Buckling test. Sciatic radiculopathy
Name the test: With the patient side-lying with the affected side up, instruct the patient to flex the unaffected ex­tremity slightly at the hip and knee. Then grasp the afected leg and extend the hip 15° with the knee extended. Next, flex the knee to Femoral nerve traction test.
Name the test: With the patient supine, raise the leg to the point of leg pain. Lower the leg 5° and dorsilex the foot Bragard’s test (sciatic nerve iritation)
Name the test: With the patient supine, raise the unaffected leg to 75° or to the point of leg pain, and dorsiflex the foot. Fajerstzajn’s test (disc protrusion usually medial to the nerve root)
Name the test: Seat the patient with legs hanging over the examination table. Instruct the patient to extend one knee at a time alternately. If no positive response is elicited, instruct the patient to raise both legs together Bechterew’s test. (Sciatic or lumbar nerve root)
Name the test: The patient with sciatic radiculopathy will stand on the healthy side and keep the afected leg flexed to decrease the tension on the sciatic nerve Minor’s sign
Name the test: With the patient either sitting or standing, stabilize the posterior superior iliac spine with one hand. With your other hand, reach around to the front of the patient and grasp the shoulder. Passively bend the dorsolumbar spin Kemps test. (Facet joint capsulitis)
Name the test: Instruct the patient to walk on the toes, then on the heels Observe the pa­tient and see whether the patient can support the entire body weight on each set of toes and each heel. Heel toe walk test. Heel is L5 toe is S1
Name the test: Instruct the seated patient to bear down as if straining at stool but concentrating the bulk of the stress at the lumbar region. If the patient feels any increased pain, ask him or her to point to it. This test is s Valsalva’s maneuver. Space occupying lesion
Name the test: With the patient seated, instruct him to cough, sneeze, and bear down as if straining at stool (Val­salva's maneuver). Dejerine’s triade. Space occupying lesions
Name the test: With the patient supine, place one hand under the lumbar spine with each finger under an inter­ spinous space. With the other hand, perform a straight leg raising test. Note whether pain is elicited before, during, or ater the spinous Goldthwaith’s test (lumbar vs sacroiliac involvement)
Created by: Jkellycal