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# Basic research/Stat

### Chapter 6&7

TermDefinition
Probability The study of the likelihood and uncertainty ; the # of ways a particular outcome can occur divided by the total # of outcomes. EX; HEADS OR TAILS 1 OUTCOME AND TWO POSSIBILITIES.
Hypothesis testing The PROCESS of determining whether a hypothesis is supported by the results of a research study. IT IS BUILT ON PROBABILITY. it focuses on the differences between groups or relationships observed.
Multiplication rule Probability rule stating that the probability of a SERIES of outcomes occurring on a successive trails is the product of their individual probabilities, when the sequence of outcomes is independent. FLIP A COIN 1 TIME YOU GET A HEAD THAN TALES .5*.5=.25
Addition rule The probability of one outcome or another outcome occurring on a particular trail is the sum of their individual probabilities , when the outcomes are mutually exclusive. 1/6 getting a 6 1/6 2/6
Null hypothesis Predicting that NO DIFFERENCE exists between the groups being compared.
Alternative hypothesis the researcher wants to support, predicting that a significant difference exists between the groups being compared
Null for correlation Predicts NO RELATIONSHIP
Alternative for correlation predicts yes that there is a relationship
Non Directional 2 tailed Hypothesis An alternative hypothesis in which the researcher predicts that the groups being compared ARE DIFFERENT BUT DOES NOT PREDICT THE DIRECTION OF THE DIFFERENCE.
Directional 1 tailed hypothesis An alternative hypothesis in which the researcher predicts the direction of the expected difference between the groups. THE COMPARISON IS THE DV.
type 1 error we said there was a difference when there wasn't. Null hypothesis is rejected when it is true.
Type 2 error we said there is not a difference when there was. Null hypothesis is not rejected when it is false.
statistical significance when the probability of a type 1 error is low (.05 or less) the difference between the groups is so large that we conclude it is due to something other than chance.
single group design a research study in which there is only one group of participants.
Inferential statistics procedures for drawing conclusions about a population based on data collected from a sample.
parametric test a statistical test that involves making assumptions about estimates of population characteristics or parameters. Z TEST AND T TEST.
non parametric test a statistical test that does not involve the use of any population parameters U and standard deviation are not needed and the underlying distribution does not have to be normal.
Magnitude an indication of the strength of the relationship between 2 variables
scatter plot a figure the graphically represents the relationship between 2 variables.
TYPES OF MISINTERPRETATIONS
causality the assumption that a correlation indicates a casual relationship between 2 variables.
Directionality The interference made with respect to the direction of a causal relationship between 2 variables
Third variable problem The problem of a correlation between 2 variables being dependent on another (third) variable.
Restrictive range A variable that is truncated (shorten) and has limited variability
Curvilinear Relationship the curved nature of the relationship decreases the observed correlation coefficient
Partial correlation a correlation technique that involves measuring 3 variables and then statistically removing the effect of the third variable from the correlation of the remaining 2 variables.
TYPE OF RELATIONSHIP (NONE) variables are unrelated and do not move together in any way
TYPE OF RELATIONSHIP (Curvilinear) Variables increase together up to a point and then, as one continues to increases the other decreases.
Person who argument arguing that a well established statistical trend is invalid because we know a person who went against the trend.
Pearson product moment correlation coefficient Pearson's r The most commonly used correlation coefficient when both variables are measured on an interval or ratio scale.
coefficient of determination r2 A measure of the proportion of the variance in one variable that is accounted for by another variable calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient
Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient the correlation coefficient used when one or more of the variables is measured on an ordinal ranking scale.
point biserial correlation coefficient The correlation coefficient used when one of the variables is measured on a dichotomous nominal scale and the other is measured on an interval or ratio scale.
Phi coefficient The correlation coefficient used when both measured variables are dichotomous and nominal.
Regression analysis a procedure that allows us to predict an individuals score on one variable based on knowing one or more other variables.
Regression line The best fitting line straight line drawn through the center of a scatter plot that indicates the relationship between the variables
z test A parametric inferential statistical test of the null hypothesis for a single sample where the population variance is known
sample distribution A distribution of sample means based on random samples of a fixed size from a population
standard error of the mean The standard deviation of the sampling distribution
central limit theorem A theorem that states that for any population with a mean u and a standard deviation q, the distribution of sample means for sample size N will have a mean of u, a SD of q/ square rootN and will approach a normal distribution as N approaches infinity
Critical Value The value of a test statistic that marks the edge of the region of rejection in a sampling distribution where values equal to it or beyond it falls into the region of rejection
Region of rejection The area of a sampling distribution that lies beyond the test statistics critical value when a score falls within this region H0 is rejected
statistical power The probability of correctly rejecting a false H0
T test A parametric inferential statistic test of the null hypothesis for a single sample where the population variance is not known
Students t distribution A set of distributions that although symmetrical and bell shaped are not normally distributed
Degrees of freedom df The number of scores in a sample that are free to vary.
Estimated standard error of the mean An estimated of the standard deviation of the sampling distribution
Created by: Tiff_22
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