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Psychology

TermDefinition
Nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal cord
Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Carries information to and from the Nervous System. Made up of the Autonomic, Somatic, Sympathetic and Para-Sympathetic Nervous System.
The brain and spinal cord; processes information information received from internal and external environments and activated responses.
Responsible for virtually everything we think, feel and do.
Connects brain and Peripheral Nervous System, initiates spinal reflexes.
Connects the Central Nervous System to the bodys internal organs and glands. Self regulating
Carries messages to the sensory receptors in the body to the Central Nervous System and motor messages from the Central Nervous System to skeletal muscles.
Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares body for action.
Para-Sympathetic Nervous System Calms body down after action.
Conscious Responses A reaction that does involve awareness. Controlled by the brain, voluntary responses.
Unconscious Responses
Spinal Reflex
Monosynaptic Reflex Arc
Polysynaptic Reflex Arc
Synapse
Presynaptic Neuron
Postsynaptic Neuron
Affector Neuron (afferent) A Sensory Neuron - carries information from both external and internal environments and transmits to the Central Nervous System.
Effector Neuron (efferent) (motoneuron) Carries messages from the Central Nervous System to cells in skeletal muscles, organs and glands to stimulate activity.
Dendrites
Axon
Axon Terminal
Myelin Sheath
Lock and Key Process When neurotransmitter is released into the synapse, it searches for the correctly shaped receptor site on the dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron. Neurotransmitter: Key (has a chemically distinct shape) Receptor site: Lock (only for a specific key)
Signal Transduction
Sensory Neuron
Motor Neuron
Interneuron
Neural messages Messages relating to a nerve or the Nervous system
Neural Impulses
Neurotransmitters
Excitatory Neurotransmitter
Inhibitory Neurotransmitter
Terminal Button
Neuron
A reaction that doesnt involve awareness. Dont have to pay attention, can be unintentional or involuntary, reflexive or automatic.
Responses to sensory stimuli that are unlearned and innate. Responses tend to be simple behaviours that contribute to our safety and survival. Controlled within the spinal cord.
The site where communication occurs between adjacent neurons. The gap between neurons.
Terminal buttons (sending)
Dendrites (receiving)
An extension of a Neuron that detects and receives information from other neurons. Receives incoming neural messages.
A single tube like extension that is the pathway down which the neural message travels.
Small branches at the end of an axon. Exit pathways for neural messages to travel to the next neuron.
A white fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the axon. Aids in speed of transmission.
Receives and carries sensory information from both internal and external environments and transmits to the Central Nervous System.
Carries messages from the Central Nervous System to cells in skeletal muscles, organs and glands to stimulate activity.
Sends messages between sensory and motor neurons within the Central Nervous System, relaying information from one to the other. Called connecting or associating Neuron as it relays information from one to the other.
A chemical substance produced by a neuron that carries a message to other neurons or cells in muscles, organs or other tissue.
Network of cells which transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Involving one synapse - afferent neuron brings sensation from in body and efferent neuron carries motor messages to muscles.
Involving interneurons connecting the afferent and efferent neurons - hence two synapses (or more)
Process of transferring a signal throughout an organism, especially across or through a cell
The way nerve cells communicate with one another.
Stimulate or activate postsynaptic neurons to perform their functions (eg. Glutamate)
Block or prevent postsynaptic neurons from firing
Located at the end of the Neuron and are responsible for sending the signal on to other neurons
An individual nerve cell that is specialised to receive, process and/or transmit information.
Glutamate Primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System. Means that glutamate enhances information transmission by making postsynaptic neurons more likely to fire.
Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System. Works throughout the brain to make postsynaptic neurons less likely to fire. Fine tune neurotransmission in the brain in the brain and maintain neurotransmission at an optimal level.
Created by: maccakay