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Pharm Chapters 1&2

4 sources of drugs? Plants, animals, minerals, synthetic
Pharmacology Study of medicine
Early treatments were considered what? Trial and error
Who discovered treatments from many conditions and put them into writing? China Egypt and Iran
How were "Healers" chosen? Based off their knowledge of plants
Who were the "healers"? witch doctors, wise men, shamans, and medicine men and women
WWI most soldiers died from combat injuries? T/F FALSE
WWI how did most soldiers die? Infection and accidents
During which time period did the mass production of meds begin? WWII
What meds was commonly mass produced? penicillin
A positive or negative effect he drug has on the body? Pharmacodynamics
6 categories of drugs based on desired effects? Curative, prophylactic, diagnostic, palliative, replacement, destructive
Digoxin, willow bark, ephedura shrub Plant drugs sources
Premarin (pregnant mare), lanolin (sheeps wool) Animal drug source
Electrolytes (calcium,zinc,copper) Mineral drug source
Most drugs are made by this Synthesis **all insulin IS made this way
To cure or treat a problem ex-penicillin/strep throat Curative
To prevent a problem ex-vaccines Prophylactic
To help diagnose a dx or condition ex-barium for CT scans Diagnostic
To treat symptoms to make a pt more comfortable ex-morphine/cancer Palliative
To replace a missing substance ex-insulin Replacement
To destroy tumors ex-Chemo/Radiation Destructive
Most meds break down where(Metabolism)? Liver
Medication moves from site of administration to bloodstream in what part of the drug cycle? Absorption
Speed of absorption depends on? route fat/lipid solubility pH concentration of med length of contact age food depth of breathing
Oral, Rectal, Tube what kind of route? Enteral
IM, IV, SC, ID what kind of route? Parenteral
Inhalation, sublingual, topical, and transdermal are what kind of routes? Percutaneous
The more soluble the med is in fats/lipids the easier it is absorbed? T/F? TRUE
What slows the absorption of the systemic meds? Food
Children and geri pts absorbed more meds through what? Their skin
Delivery of the drug to the site needed after it has been absorbed into the bloodstream? Distribution.
Barriers to distribution? Blood Placenta Blood Brain Blood testicular
IV medications get absorbed? T/F? FALSE
Also known as biotransformation because the med is gradually transformed to a less active or inactive. Metabolism
What is a prodrug? Drugs that are administered in an inactive form`
Desired as a treatment? Metabolite
Process by which waste products are removed from the body is called what and takes place where? Excretion, and in the kidneys
cumulation refers to what? build up in the body leading to illness
What limits exposure to medications? Excretion
Therapeutic level ? Point which the drug has maximum desired effects
Therapeutic level -Too high? -Too low? -toxic effects -does not work
Meds with high therapeutic index have a wide safety margin? T/F True very seldom do people OD on these meds
Meds with a low therapeutic does require what? Close monitoring to avoid overdosing
What is half life? Period of time for med to be reduced by 50% in the body
strength of a drug is called? Drug potency
Agonist? A drug is taken with another drug so the two can be more effective than they would alone (mimic endogenous compound)
Antagonist? a drug that makes the other drug less effective (Blocks meds normal receptors)
Usually mild, allows pt to continue taking meds ex-N/V, constipation, etc Side Effects
Severe side effect such as shock or death? Adverse reactions
Unique/Rare reactions to meds? Idiosyncratic
A reason not to take a medication is called? contradictions
High jaundice, and high liver enzymes? Liver side effects
N/V/D, anorexia, constipation, stomach ulcers, and colitis GI system effects
Fluid/electrolyte imbalance, abnormally high potassium, increased BUN Urinary side effects
Decreased WBC, RBC and platelets Hematology side effects
Agitation, confusion, delirium, drowsiness, sedation, decreased resp. rate, etc CNS side effects
Created by: SkylarNRTC



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