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MOTION AND FORCE

Physical Science Chapters 2 and 3

TermDefinition
Motion A change in an object's position relative to a reference point.
Frame of Reference A coordinate system in which the position of an object is measured.
Position Location of an object in relation to a reference point.
Distance Length of path taken to get from A to B.
Displacement Distance and direction of an object’s change in position
Speed The distance an object travels per unit of time
Instantaneous Speed Speed at any given point in time
Velocity The speed of an object in a given direction
Acceleration Rate of change in velocity
Centripetal Acceleration Acceleration toward the center of a curved or circular path
Projectile Anything shot or thrown through the air
Momentum The product of the mass and velocity of an object
Force Push or pull (attempt to change the motion of an object)
Net Force The sum of all of the forces acting on an object
Balanced ForcesFnet = 0 (no change in motion) Fnet = 0 (no change in motion)
Unbalanced Force Fnet ≠ 0 (motion is changed!)
Friction Force that opposes the sliding motion of two surfaces that are touching each other
Static Friction Prevents two objects from starting to slide past each other
Kinetic Friction Opposes the motion of two objects sliding past each other
Rolling Friction Keeps objects rolling over each other instead of sliding (special form of Fs)
Coefficient of Friction Measure of the stickiness between two surfaces
Gravity An attractive force between any two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
Gravity Field Region of space around an object with gravitational force
Acceleration due to Gravity Rate at which nearby objects accelerate toward a body
Weight Gravitational force exerted on an object
Free Fall State an object is in when gravity is the only force acting on it
Inertia Tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Newton’s 1st Law An object moves at a constant velocity unless an unbalanced force acts on it *Also called law of inertia
Newton’s 2nd Law An object’s acceleration is in the same direction as the net force on the object and is equal to the net force exerted on it divided by its mass
Terminal Velocity Maximum speed an object will reach when falling through a substance like air
Newton’s 3rd Law Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Centripetal Force Force exerted toward the center of a circle or curved path
Centrifugal Force Imaginary force pulling to the outside of a circular path
Law of Conservation of Momentum If no external forces act on a group of objects, their total momentum doesn’t change
Created by: 22lovabi