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Philosophy 102

Philosophy The love of wisdom.
Wisdom 1. Get clear on WHAT you believe. 2. Get clear on WHY. 3. ASK: Do the reasons in 2 justify the belief in 1.
Metaphysics The study of what exists and the way or manner in which it exists.
Ontology The list of entities one is claiming exists.
Epistemology The study of knowledge.
Ethics The study of morality and morally correct action.
Knowledge Justified TRUE belief.
Deontology INTENTION based theory of ethics.
Utilitarianism CONSEQUENCE based theory of ethics.
Skepticism Rational doubt.
Theoretical Broadbased. Asked the general questions.
Practical Applying broadbased to practical case.
Please state and explain one problem with cultural relativism Cultural relativism leads to endorsing obviously immoral acts such as the Holocaust because Nazi culture said it was moral.
Argument A reason or set of reasons for thinking some other claim is true.
Non-Argument 1. Single Claim 2. String of Claims 3. Explanation
Logic The study or art of correct reasoning.
String of Claims A list of claims with no relationship of support. Apply the 'Therefore' test
Critical Thinking Thinking about thinking. Metathinking
Claim A SIMPLE declarative sentence.
Premise The SUPPORTING part of an argument. An argument must containat least 1 premise.
Conclusion The claim that is purportedly SUPPORTED by the premise(s).
All arguments must consist of... 2 claims. 1 PREMISE and 1 CONCLUSION.
Objective Claim Matter of FACT.
Subjective Claim Matter of Mere Opinion.
Matter of FACT When 2 or more people disagree, at least 1 person is wrong BUT everybody could be wrong. Is capable of being false.
Matter of OPINION When 2 or more people disagree, BOTH people are correct.
Conditional Claim A single claim. NOT an argument. If....then...
Premise indicator words... Since... For... Because... In view of... This is implied by... Given...
Conclusion indicator words Thus... Therefore... Hence... This shows that... This suggests that... Consequently... So... Accordingly...
Explanation NEVER in dispute.
Suppressed conclusion A conclusion that is supposed to be so obvious that it need not be stated.
Suppressed premise A premise that is supposed to be so obvious that it need not be stated.
Premise surrogate A phrase that indicates there are premises without actually articulating them.
Finding the main issue 1. Spot the conclusion 2. Turn the conclusion into a question. 3. Now, one has the issue at hand.
Deductive argument Relatively rare. In a good deductive argument, the conclusion is forced by the premise(s). *No other conclusion could follow. *the conclusion follows with strict necessity.
Inductive argument Always invalid. Any good inductive argument, the conclusion follows with the probability of greater than 50%.
Semantic ambiguity Ambiguity based on a word or phrase having another meaning. Our mothers bore us.
Syntactic ambiguity Ambiguity based on sentence structure. This morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas.
Matter of fact Capable of being false.
Created by: TuriaMarie