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# Energy in Waves

### Waves

mechanical wave involve the motion of some form of matter, but the matter is vibrating in place
electromagnetic wave these waves send energy through magnetic and electric fields. They have wave length and a frequency, and can travel through a vacuum.
transverse wave the particles of the medium move in a direction that is perpendicular to the direction in which the energy moves. example: ocean wave
longitudinal wave energy compresses and expands the space between particles. example: sound wave
sound wave the particles of the medium carrying the sound move back and forth parallel to the direction the energy travels. They travel fastest through solids.
peak, or crest, of a transverse wave the top of the wave
bottom, or trough, of a transverse wave is the minimum height that a wave reaches below the surface of the surrounding water
compressions Areas of a longitudinal wave where particles are most tightly bunched together
rarefactions The areas where particles are spread apart the most
frequency the number of waves that pass a certain point in a given amount of time.
method of measuring frequency by counting the number of peaks or compressions that pass a certain point over a given time.
frequency of a sound wave determines the pitch you will hear.
wavelength the distance between successive corresponding points on a wave.
method of measuring wavelength distance between successive corresponding points on a wave, or the distance between two successive crests of a wave.
visible light, wavelength determines what color the light is
measuring longitudinal waves the distance between one compression and another
amplitude relates to the amount of energy the wave carries
transverse wave, amplitude the distance from the midline of the wave to its greatest height, or crest, or from the midline of the wave to its lowest point, or trough.
sound waves, amplitude corresponds to volume or loudness
interference Two or more waves that travel in the same medium interacting with each other.
constructive interference If two waves that meet have similar frequencies and are in phase the wave amplitudes will add up to create new waves with a greater amplitude
destructive interference If the two waves are completely out of phase, a new wave with a lower overall amplitude will result.
seismographs used in three different locations to pinpoint an earthquake's epicenter
convex lens when light rays pass through _________________they come together
concave when light rays pass through_________________ they spread out
Triangular Prism When white light pass through, a rainbow of light is seen on the opposite side because the light changes direction when it enters the ______________.
refraction of light the bending of light waves
focal point where light rays meet when they are refracted by a lens
examples of a convergent lens convex lenses, magnifying glass, microscope lens
examples of a divergent lens concave lenses, nearsighted glasses, car headlamp cover
convergent lens light rays to come together from the lens; image appears larger
divergent lens light rays spread out from the lens; image can appear smaller
nearsighted vision is blurry, focal point behind retina; difficulty reading in arms reach; convex lenses
farsighted vision is blurry; focal point in front of retina; difficulty reading far away; concave lenses
reflection
absorption
transmission
diffraction the bending of light or sound waves around obstacles in its path
the higher the vibrations per second the higher the pitch
order of wavelengths from longest to shortest radio, infrared, visible light, ultra violet, x-rays, gamma rays
Ultraviolet light advantages sterilize lab material, destroy harmful cells, absorbed by skin, create vitamin D
Ultraviolet light disadvantages destroy cells, break down DNA, absorbed by skin, degrades plastic
rough surfaces affect on light scatter light rays
diffuse reflection rock, running stream, tee shirt
surface reflection car, mirror, calm water
translucent describes materials that allow some light to travel through them, but not enough to see through the material
transparent describes materials through which light can travel; materials that can be seen through
opaque describes an object that light cannot travel through
Created by: ledee.workman