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Ch 4 Geo/History ME

Chapter 4 Geo and History of ME Study Guide

What do Judaism, Islam and Christianity have in common? They are all monotheistic, began in the Middle East, and all three believe they are descendants of Abraham.
Which religion is the oldest? Judaism
What is the cause of the disagreement between Sunni and Shia Muslims? The two disagreed over who should lead Muslims after the death of Mohammad.
Where do most Shia live? Iran
Who do Sunni think should be the leader of Islam? Whoever could best lead and keep the community together
Who do Shia (Shi'ites) believe should be the leader of Islam? Leadership should go to Muhammad's heir or direct descendent of Muhammad
The majority of Muslims are which sect? Sunni
Who was in control of the Ottoman Empire after WWI? European countries partitioned or divided the empire into smaller countries with Great Britain taking much control
What is Palestine? Area now knows as Israel; it was originally a homeland for Muslims.
Who are Palestinians? Arab Muslims living in present day Israel
Who are the Israelis? Jewish people who claim the area originally known as Palestine as their homeland promised to them by God.
When was the official state of Israel established? May 14, 1948
What is the term for Jewish populations being spread out in Europe and the rest of the world that began in 70 A.D.? diaspora
What were the TWO states that the UN broke Palestine into in 1947? Israel and Palestine
What is Zionism? A movement for Jews worldwide to return to their homeland (Zion)
Why is there a conflict between Palestinians and Israelis? They both feel they are entitled to claim the land known as Palestine.
What group of people migrated to Israel in the 1930's/40's and why? Zionists (Jews) migrated to Israel in the hopes of recreating their homeland due to persecution, the Holocaust, displacement due to WWII.
What was the PLO? The Palestinian Liberation Organization is a group of Muslims (Palestinians) who feel that Israel does not have the right to exist and want the land returned to them.
Who was Saddam Hussein? What role did he play in Middle East conflicts? Saddam was the President of Iraq; he invaded Kuwait in 1990 to get their oil. UN pushed him out of Kuwait in 1991. In 2003 US declared war on Iraq as part of the War on Terror. They felt he was aiding Al-Qaeda and though he had WMDs.
What was the Persian Gulf War? Which countries were involved? A war resulting from Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990; Iraq wanted to take over Kuwait's oil. A coalition of UN forces were sent to liberate Kuwait in 1991. Iraq, Kuwait, and US led forces were the main participants.
Why did Saddam Hussein attack Kuwait? 1. He wanted their oil. 2. He did not want to pay back the money he owed them from the Iran-Iraq war.
Why did the United States declare war with Afghanistan in 2001? The US wanted to capture the people responsible for 9-11 (al-Qaeda). The Taliban, the government of Afghanistan, was harboring them.
What happened on September 11, 2001? Who was the President at the time of September 11, 2001? A group of militants associated with al-Qaeda hijacked 4 US airliners and carried out suicide attacks throughout the U.S., killing over 3000 people; the president was George W Bush.
What are WMD and how did they get the US involved in Iraq? Weapons of Mass Destruction are weapons such as gas that can be used to kill thousands of people. Saddam Hussein was supposed to get rid of them following the Persian Gulf War.
Who was the Taliban and what country did they control? The Taliban was the extremely radical government of Afghanistan. They used violence to maintain control of the country. They became involved in terrorist activities.
After the Persian Gulf War, what was the status of Kuwait? Kuwait's oil well fires raged in the aftermath of Operation Desert Storm/the Persian Gulf War. Pollution was a major problem.
In what country did the Taliban operate? What terrorist were they accused of hiding? Afghanistan; Osama Bin Laden
Why did Saddam Hussein invade Kuwait? He said that Kuwait was taking more oil than it should (drilling under Iraq's border) and he claimed that when the Ottoman Empire broke up, Iraq should have gotten Kuwait's land (most of Iraq's coastline was part of Kuwait)
As a result of the war with Iran, Iraq owed a lot of money to which country? Kuwait
What was the War on Terror and what American President is responsible for declaring the war? After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, President George Bush's administration declared a worldwide "war on terror" involving open and covert military operations, new security legislation, efforts to block the financing of terrorism and more.
What political party did Saddam Hussein belong to? The Ba'ath party
What does OPEC stand for? Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Who were the original Middle Eastern OPEC countries? Kuwait, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran
What was OPEC's goal? The goal is to control the price of oil on the world market and the supply. When less oil is produced, the price increases.
What are the most important resources in the Middle East? Oil and natural gas
Why is water scarce in the Middle East? Freshwater is unequally distributed in SW Asia or the Middle East, deserts are common in the area, the climate is hot and dry, and countries that share water sources have problems over how to share that water.
Explain the process of desalinization of water in the Middle East. Desalinization is the process of removing salt and other chemicals from seawater. It is very expensive and requires complex technology, which means poorer countries cannot afford it.
Created by: darcymcfarlane



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