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Ch. 17

Infection Control

TermDefinition
Asepsis freedom from infection
Bacteria prokaryotic, ubiquitous (everywhere), and single-celled organisms
Blood-borne Pathogens disease causing microorganisms that may be present in human blood
Chemotherapy treatment of disease by chemical agents
Cyst stage in the life cycle of certain parasites during which they are enclosed in a protective wall
Dimorphic occurring in two distinct forms
Diseases deviations from or interruptions of the normal structure or function of any part, organ, or system of the body that are exhibited by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs whose cause, pathologic mechanism, and prognosis may be known or unknown
Disinfectants chemicals used to free en environment from pathogenic organisms or to render such organisms inert, especially applied to the treatment of inanimate materials to reduce or eliminate infectious organisms
Eukaryotes organisms whose cells have a true nucleus
Flora microbial community found on or in a healthy person
Fomite object, such as a book, wooden object, or article of clothing, that is not in itself harmful, but is able to harbor pathogenic microorganisms and thus may serve as an agent of transmission of an infection
Fungi general term used to denote a group of eukaryotic protists-including mushrooms, yeasts, rusts, molds and smuts-that are characterized by the absence of chlorophyll and by the presence of a rigid cell wall
Health Care Associated Infections (HAI) infection that patients acquire while they are receiving treatment for another health care issue
Host animal or plant that harbors or nourishes another organism
Iatrogenic resulting from the activities of physicians
Immunity security against a particular disease
Infection invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues that may be clinically inapparent or may result in local cellular injury as a result of competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response
Medical Asepsis reduction in numbers of infectious agents, which, in turn, decreases the probability of infection but doesn't necessarily reduce it to zero
Microorganisms microscopic organisms; those of medical interest include, bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa
Nosocomial pertaining to or originating in the hospital; said of an infection not present or incubating before admittance to the hospital, but generally developing 72 hours after admittance
Pathogens disease producing microorganisms
Prokaryotes cellular organisms that lack a true nucleus
Protozoa subkingdom comprising the simplest organisms of the animal kingdom, consisting of unicellular organisms that range in size from submicroscopic to macroscopic; most are free living, but some lead commensalistic, mutualistic, or parasitic existances
Reservoir alternative or passive host or carrier that harbors pathogenic organisms, without injury to itself, and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected
Standard Precautions precautions to prevent the transmission of disease by body fluids and substances
Sterilization complete destruction or elimination of all living microorganisms, accomplished by physical methods (dry or moist heat), chemical agents (ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, or alcohol), radiation (ultraviolet or cathode), or mechanical methods (filtration)
Surgical Asepsis procedure used to prevent contamination by microbes and endospores before, during, or after surgery using sterile techniques
Vaccine suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, or rickettsiae) administered for the prevention, improvement, or treatment of infectious disease
Vector carrier, especially an animal (usually an arthropod), that transfers an infective agent from one host to another
Virion (Viral Particle) complete viral particle found extracellularly and capable of surviving in crystalline form and infecting a living cell; comprises the nucleoid (genetic material) and capsid
Viruses any of a group of minute infectious agents not resolved in the light microscope, with certain exceptions (ex. poxvirus), and characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and by the ability to replicate only within living host cells
Created by: laurendiane10