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Adolescent Psych C2

Cognitive change

QuestionAnswer
A typical Neuronal Cell carry info by transmitting electrical changes across the body and brain by neurotransmitters
Synapse The tiny gap between each neuron are the connections between neurons
Neurotransmitters when the electrical charge travels through a neuron, it stimulates the release of
Tools to study the brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), DTI,EEG,
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) examines patterns of activity (through increased blood flow) in various regions of the brain while individuals perform a variety of tasks
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) tracks diffusion f material (water) and so helps identify the ways in which various regions of the brain are connected. Used to compare how patterns of interconnections might differ among people at different stages.
Electroencephalography (EEG) measures electrical activity at different locations on the scalp. Can be used to examine changes in the electrical activity in relation to different stimulations
Synaptic Pruning those connections that get used will stay, those that don't will get eliminated happens throughout life begins shortly after birth
Plasticity adolescence is heightened brain is able to be moulded
Synaptic Pruning = development or improvements in functioning in associated regions (visual abilities)
Myelination a process where neurons develop a white fatty tissue called myelin around the areas that connect neurons Increases the speed of electrical impulses and communication between neurons
Myelinations begins... in the prenatal period
Enhanced myelination... corresponds to improvements in cognitive functioning as communication between neurons become faster
Cerebrum Lobes (4) Occipital, Parietal, Temporal, Frontal
Prefrontal Cortex planning, thinking ahead, intuitive decision making , weighing risks and rewards, and controlling impulses
Parietal Cortex working memory
Temporal Cortex memory and social cognition
Dorsolateral prefrontal Cortex important for planning ahead
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex important for gut- feeling, intuitive decision making
Orbitofrontal Cortex important for evaluating risks and rewards
The Prefrontal cortex is not fully developed until... mid-20s
More efficient connections within the prefrontal cortex= self control improvements
More efficient connections between the prefrontal cortex and other regions of the brain like the limbic system used for coordination between thinking and feeling
Functional connectivity stimulates recruitment or use of multiple parts of the brain in everyday functioning increases interconnections between brain regions
Limbic System no agreement in terms of clear boundaries of this brain system Typically associated with the processing of emotional info, ex. Hypothalamus, Thalamus, Amygdala Used for processing emotions,socialinfo, rewards and punishment
Greater connectivity with __________ helps emotion regulation and self control prefrontal cortex
Neurotransmitters: Changes in Adolescence enhanced "sensitivity" and changes in how the brain responds to neurotransmitters like: Serotonin and Dopamine
Serotonin regulates our experiences of moods
Dopamine regulates our experience of rewards
Adolescent brain is "primed" or more sensitive to rewards due to: More dopamine after rewarding events More production of dopamine receptors in adolescence (than later pruning in adulthood
Impact of Neurotransmitters Seeking new rewards/sensations (dopamine) Enhanced sensitivity to mood disorders (serotonin)
Limbic System (values) reward valued over risk of decision or behavior
Prefrontal Cortex (values) risk valued more in decision or behavior
Risk Taking is common in adolescence, they overall appear to take more risks than children and adults
Age of cognitive control, logical thinking, matures 15-16
Self regulating (coordination of prefrontal/emotional system) takes much longer *age 25
Behavioral Decision theory that decision making is rational and individuals try to maximize benefits of alternative courses of action and maximize costs This perspective helps to break down the reasons for behaviors, whether they outwardly seem risky or not
In one study, when participants were asked whether certain activities were bad ideas adolescents used brain regions associated with more... deliberate thinking
the brain regions associated with "reward" appear to be heightened with.... peer pressure
Compared to children, adolescents are more sophisticated in their ability to: Think about possibilities (2) Think about abstract concepts (3) Think about thinking (metacognition) (4) Think in multiple dimensions (5) See knowledge as relative (relativism)
Thinking About Possibilities Adolescent thinking is less restricted by the present or the here and now  Adolescents are more able to generate alternative explanations and possibilities (that may or may not exist)
Deductive reasoning examples All roses are red. This flower is a rose. Therefore it must be red.
Hypothetical thinking  Requires the ability to hold two different (or more) possibilities in your mind at once (If…then)  Requires the ability to see two (or more) future consequences of particular possibilities
Thinking About Possibilities: Some Repercussions  Scientific thinking: comparing possible alternatives; testing possibilities  Better arguers: anticipating possible counterarguments; visualizing different ways of doing things  More argumentative? If you can see different possibilities, then ther
Thinking About Abstract Concepts Ability to comprehend higher-order abstract logic:  metaphors, and analogies  Interest in such higher-order concepts as friendship (social relationships), faith (religion) , democracy (politics), honesty (morality), etc.
Metacognition: Thinking About Thinking Monitoring one’s own cognitive activity during thinking Increased introspection: thinking about our own emotions and thoughts  Increased self-consciousness: thinking that others are thinking about us
Egocentrism can result in 2 types of thinking that may be problematic: Imaginary audience: Belief that everyone is watching and cares what they are doing; self-esteem based on what others think  Personal fable: My experiences are unique; can’t relate with others because no one understands me; nothing bad can happen to me
Thinking in Multiple Dimensions Ability to view things from more than one aspect at a time; to provide more than one answer or point of view on the same question  More complex understanding of themselves and others (multidimensional understanding of self)  Understand multiple mean
Adolescent Relativism Ability to see things as relative rather than as absolute  Less likely to see other’s assertions as facts (change from children)  Skepticism becomes common
Piaget’s View There are “stages” characterized by a particular type of thought Stages of cognitive change are universal, not culture-specific
Piaget’s View: Questioned (Researchers now view development as being more continuous) (Researchers see how culture and environment impact cognitive changes
Piaget’s views on learning/ encountering new information Assimilation, Accommodation
Assimilation FIT the NEW information with currently held knowledge and thinking
Accommodation CHANGE your thinking to fit the new information
Equilibrium which new information has been accommodated
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL -Conservation -Logical thinking (concrete) -Trial and error Age 7-11
FORMAL OPERATIONS Logical thinking (abstract) -Form hypotheses, test hypotheses (possibilities) Age 12+
Conservation Forms of matter remain constant in quantity
Horizontal decalage cognitive development emerges in some domains sooner than others (e.g. numbers, mass volume)
Selective attention focus on one task
Divided attention multitasking
Working memory ability to hold information for a short time, manipulate this information
Long term memory ability to recall info from the past
Reminiscence bump: The events and experiences from adolescence are remembered well as compared to other points in life
Information processing The time it takes to analyse incoming information from the senses, formulate decisions, and respond
Created by: MeganCloet