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Chapter 2

Classical Viewpoint 1911-1947 Emphasis on ways to manage work more efficiently
Behavioral Viewpoint 1913-1950s Emphasis on importance of understanding human behavior and motivating and encouraging employees toward achievement
Quantitative Viewpoint 1940s-1950s Applies quantitative techniques to management, such as statistics and computer simulations
The Systems Viewpoint Regards the organization as systems of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose
The Contingency Viewpoint Emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to - most practical because it addresses problems by a case-by-case basis
The Quality - Management Viewpoint Three Approaches
Scientific Management Pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor and the Gilbreths in 1900s Emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers
Administrative Management - Henri Fayol concerned with managing the total organization
Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916) Known as the father of Industrial Psychology
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) A social worker and social philosopher, she made very important contributions to the fields of civics and sociology
Hawthorne effect Employees worked harder if they received added attention, and thought that managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid special attention to them
Human Relations Movement Proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 1. Self-actualization - need for self - fulfillment 2. Esteem - Need for self-respect 3. Love - need for love 4. Safety - need for physical safety 5. Physiological - need for food
Theory X (Douglas McGregor) Represent a pessimistic, negative view of workers Workers are irresponsible, resistant to change, lack ambition, hate work, and want to be led
Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Represents an optimistic, positive view of workers Workers are considered capable of accepting responsibility, self-direction, self control, and being creative
Management Science Focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making
Operations Management Focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organizations products or services more effectively
4 parts of a Systems Viewpoint 1. Inputs 2. Transformational Processes 3. Outputs 4. Feedback
Inputs The people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce and organizations, goods or services
Transformational processes The organizations capabilities in management and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs
Outputs The products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, etc..., produced by the organization
Feedback Information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs, which affects the inputs
Closed Systems Organizations that have little interaction with their environment
Open Systems Organizations that continually interact with their environment; have the potential to produce synergy
Complexity Theory - the ultimate open system Recognizes that all complex systems are networks of many interdependent parts that interact with each other according to certain simple rules
Created by: wtterry41
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