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CHAPTER 3

PSYC 100

TermDefinition
The nervous system is made primarily of neurons
neurons nerve cells specialized for communication
Cell body central region of cell
dendrites receive outside signals
axon delivers signals to other cells
myelin sheath glial cells that help speed signal transmission
axon terminals end of axon where signal is released
Glial cells provides support and nutrients for neurons
blood-brain barrier prevents harmful substances from entering the brain.
electrical signal propagation within neuron
Chemical communication between neurons
action potential all or none electrical impulse that neurons use to propagate signal
absolute refractory period recovery time when another AP is not possible
Synapse junction between two communicating neurons
neurotransmitter chemical signal
synaptic cleft space between two neurons where neurotransmitter is released
receptor sites lock and key mechanism that take
peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that connect muscles, organs and glands to the central nervous system
Somatic NS carries signals between the CNS and muscles in the body that control movement
Autonomic NS carries signals between the CNS and organs/glands that regulate involuntary actions and the body’s internal state
Sympathetic NS readies the body for action
Parasympathetic NS active during rest
spinal cord carries sensory information to the brain, and motor control commands back to the body
brainstems consist of medulla, pons, and midbrain
medulla helps regulate heart rate and breathing
pons involved in modulation of motor activity
Thalamus relay station of the brain- direct signals passing between the body and the brain
Cerebellum important for balance, coordination, and preplanned actions, learning motor skills
Basal ganglia responsible for executing planned actions
hypothalamus regulates the internal environment of the body by controlling the autonomic NS
amygdala involved in emotion regulation, and fear
hippocampus important for memory, especially forming new memories, and spatial memory
the cortex divided into 2 hemispheres and separated into four lobes
contralaterally organized information from the right side of the body is processed on the left and vice-versa.
corpus callosum band of tissue that connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate
primary sensory areas primary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex, somatosensory cortex.
motor cortex sends signals to motor neurons, controls motion
association cortex integrate sensory information to perform complex functions
topographic organization adjacent portions of cortex control adjacent body parts
frontal lobe involved in motion and higher order cognition, such as reasoning, planning, and language production
parietal lobe important for touch sensation, perception, object recognition, and number representation
temporal lobe important for auditory sensation, understanding language, and storing autobiographical memory
occipital lobe important for vision
aphasias lack of ability to a certain area
brocas aphasia's inability to produce speech
brocas area important for producing speech
Wernickes aphasias inability to comprehend speech
wernickes area important for comprehending speech
Lateralization some functions are only processed by one hemisphere
Created by: jenny27