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Rad protection 10/07

what is iso-exposure lines? how room are set up
what is the minimum fluoro SSD for stationary and mobile? stationary 38 cm (15") - Fixed* mobile 30 cm (12")
* the intensity of the beam at TT of a fluoroscope should not exceed 2.1 R/minute for each mA of operation at 80 kVp. If there is no optional high level control, the intensity must not exceed 10 R/minute during fluoro. If an optional high level control is if high level is provided, the maximum TT intensity is 20 R/min
what is the lead requirements for the tube housing 1.5 mm Pb - must reduce leakage to less than 100 mR/hr at 1 meter (not at focal spot)
what are the * Occupancy Factor and examples? - full = work areas, living quarters, children’s play areas- frequent = corridors, restrooms, elevators with operators, unattended parking lots- occasional = waiting rooms, stairways, unattended elevators, janitor closets, outside areas
what are example of * Natural background radiation? cosmic, terrestrial, internal (potassium 40, strontium 90, carbon 14, hydrogen 3, radon) , gamma
what is Particulate radiation? alpha & beta =
what are examples of - Biologic Effects ? Stochastic and Deterministic
what is the definition of Stochastic ? random in nature, probability of occurrence increases as a function of dose, assumed not to have a threshold (point at which a stimulus begins to produced a sensation) - examples are : Cancer induction = leukemia, Genetic, Non-specific life shortening
what is the definition of Deterministic ? non-stochastic) = severity increases with dose and a threshold exists. examples are : developmental anomalies - congenital, degenerative disease, organ atrophy, cataracts
* Somatic vs Genectic Somatic = in exposed person ; skin erythema, cataracts, rad-induced malignancies- Genetic = occur in pregnancy, may lie dormant for many generations or be eliminated from gene pool
what is GSD? (genetically significant dose) = measure of the average annual gonadal dose to members of the population, adjusted for the expected # children conceived by each individual after exposure
whaat is DD? doubling dose) = unit of measure for determination of radiation effects on mutation frequency; that dose of radiation which ultimately doubles the number of spontaneous mutations inone generation = .5 Gy in humans
* rad 100 ergs of energy absorbed in 1 gram of any absorber (matter)
Def of - Air Kerma? * Kinetic Energy released in matter (rad)* photon energy id transferred to KE of charged particles , ex: e- with PE and Compton
what is * LET ? energy transfer (rate at which energy is deposited as a charged particle travels through matter)
how often are dosimeters calibrated? yearly
what are examples of Naturally occurring radiation? - uramium, actinum, thorium
Personnel Monitors (Dosimeters) greater than or equal to 1/10 equivalent dose
* Film Badges monthly; photographic principle; filters - copper, Al, and cadmium; <10mRem = M; read x, beta, gamma up to 2000 rem; heat humidity, mechanical pressure, light
what is OSLD and about it Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters - made of aluminum oxide
what is TLD and about it = Thermoluminescent Dosimeters - Lithium fluride chip; exposure os stored in metastable state, use reader to heat to give off light
what is the * Advisory? - 1928 ICRP = international Commission on Radiological Protection; 1929 NCRP = National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement; NAS = National Academy of Science; BEIR = Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation; UNSCEAR = United National Scientif
what are the - Regulatory Agencies? * FDA = Code of Federal regulations (CFR)* NRC = Nuclear Regulator Commission = Guideline 8.13 (AEC old term)
Annual Occupational Exposure 50 mSv (5 rem) whole body, stochastic-(random,genetics a year
Cumulative Occupational Exposure - 10 mSv x age (1 rem x age) a year
Tissues/Organs (Deterministic) Occupational Exposure - Lens = 150 mSv (15 rem) a year- Others = 500 mSv (50 rem) a year
Public Exposure (Annual) Exposure - continuous /frequent 1 mSv (.1 rem) - - this would be worker under 18
Public Exposure (Annual) Exposure infrequent 5 mSv (.5 rem) - - this would be dental x-rays
Public Exposure (Annual) Exposure - tissue/organs * lens = 15 mSv (1.5 rem)* skin = 50 mSv (5 rem)
Embryo-Fetus Exposure - monthly = .5 mSv (.05 rem) * * *- gestation = 5 mSv (.5 rem)
Education & Training (Annual) Exposure - effective doses limit = 1 mSv (.1rem)- lens = 15 mSv (1.5 rem)- skin, hands, feet = 50 mSv (5 rem)
ALARA Personnel Protection :* Principles Exposure - time- distance- shielding- primary = (s/s) lead sheets, concrete, Pb glass, steel, Pb acrylic 1/16"- secondary = gypsum board, glass, Pb acrylic 1/32"
when is the fetus most radiosensitive? during 8 - 15 weeks
what is the Pregnancy Time and Dose - < 5 rads risk negligible compared to other risks- > 15 rads risk of malformations is significantly increased- > 25 rads - may suggest therapeutic abortion
- Dx Tube Protective Housing Leakage must be less than 100 mR/hr at 1 meter
% Active Bone Marrow - 10% head- 8% shoulder & upper. Humerus- 3% sternum- 11% ribs- 4% c-spine- 13% t-spine- 11% l-spine- 11% sacrum- 29% pelvis & upper femur
* X-ray intensity TT < 2.1 R/min/mA @ 80 kV = < 10 R/min
* once I a lifetime accidently dose be put on record = 25 rem
emergency life saving dose example: come to ER = 100 rem
* Mean Marrow Dose average dose to active bone marrow for hematological effects = US avg. 100 mrad/yr
Created by: sr4095