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McCrary Unit 4

AP Psychology 18-19 class, Social Psych unit

social psychology the study of how we think, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either situation or disposition
fundamental attribution error tendency for observers, when analyzing someone's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitude feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in certain ways to objects, people, and events
peripheral route persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues or events, such as a person's attractiveness
central route persuasion occurs when interested people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
foot-in-the-door phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to later comply with a larger one
role a set of expectations/norms about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
cognitive dissonance theory theory that we act to reduce the discomfort/dissonance we feel the two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and actions conflict, we reduce dissonance by changing our attitudes
conformity adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Solomon Asch man who ran a conformity experiment in the 1950s about line length
Asch's conformity study experiment with five participants that examines whether participants conform and "call white black" through differing line lengths. 75% conformed at least once
normative social influence influence resulting from a person's desire to avoid disapproval or gain approval
informational social influence influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
stanley milgram student of solomon asch who was a social psychologist and conducted the infamous obedience experiment
milgram's obedience experiment one participant "teacher", the other a "learner", electric shocks increasingly administered to discover the limits to conformity and obedience, 65% went to the highest setting
social facilitation improved performance on simple or well learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing tendency for people to in a group exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal then when held individually accountable
deindividuation the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that fosters arousal/anonymity
group polarization enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
groupthink mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in decision making in a group overrides a realistic appraisal or alterations
culture the enduring values, behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group that are transmitted from one generation to the next
norm an understood rule for accepted behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
prejudice an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally implies stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings. and a predisposition for discriminatory action
stereotype a generalized (sometimes accurate, often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
discrimination an unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
just-world-phenomenon the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore deserve what they get and get what they deserve
ingroup "us", people with whom we share a common identity
outgroup "them", those perceived as different or apart from the ingroup
scapegoat theory the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race-effect the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races(also called cross-race effect, own-race bias)
aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which generates aggression
social script culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations
mere exposure effect the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking of them
passionate love an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
companionate love the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
equtiy a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
self-disclosure revealing intimate aspects of ourself to others
altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if another bystander is present
social exchange theory theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who help them
social responsibility an expectation that people will help those needing their help
conflict a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mirror-image perceptions mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and the other as evil and aggressive
self-fulfilling prophecy a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
superordinate goals shared goals that override differences, unite people, and require their cooperation
GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction: a strategy to decrease international tensions
in-group bias the tendency to favor our own group
Created by: abyrd6067