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1Psychology and Life

Psychology Terms

QuestionAnswer
Behavior the means by which organisms adjust to their environment.
Psychology the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes, (scientific behavior, individual, mental)
Behavioral data reports of observaions about the behavior of organisms and the conditions under which the behavior occurs.
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1908/1973) "psychology has a long past, but only a short history" One of the first experimental scientists.
Wilhelm Wundt (1879) Germany. Founded the first formal laboratory devoted to experimental psychology.
Edward Titchener (1892) Founded Cornell University's laboratory. First in the US.
William James (1890/1950) Wrote "Principles of Psychology", one of the most important psychology texts.
Structuralism the study of the structure of the mind and behavior, based on the presumption that all human mental experinece could be understood as the comination of basic components.
Max Wertheimer focused on gestalts-organized wholes- rather than the sums of different parts. Impacts the study of perception
Functionalism gave primary importance to learned habits that enable organisms to adapt to their environment and to function effectively. John Dewey, founder of the school of functionalism.
Psychodynamic Perspective behavior is driven, or motivated by powerful inner forces. Human actions stem from inherited instincts, biological drives and attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and society's demands.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) psychodynamic theory, that a person is pushed and pulled by a complex network of inner and outer forces. Human nature is not always rational, may be driven by the subconscious.
Behaviorist Perspective seek to understand how particular enviornmental stimuli control particular kinds of behavior. They analyze the antecedent, look at the behavioral response, then study the consequences. John Watson, BF Skinner.
Humanistic Perspective people are neither driven by powerful instinctive forces, nor manipulated by their environments. Carl Rogers, Abraham Manslow
Cognitive Perspective human thought and all the processes of knowing- attending, thinking, remembering and understanding. People act because they think.
Biological Perspective causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain, and the nervous system, as well as the endocrine system.
Evolutionary Perspective Connects contemporary psychology to a central idea of natural selection.
Sociocultural Perspective study of cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior.
Created by: lmnhodgins
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