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Fallacies Mgt350

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Deductive thinking is the kind of reasoning that begins with two or more premisesand derives a conclusion that must follow from those premises, a conclusionthat is in fact contained or hidden in those very premises.
categorical syllogism MAJOR PREMISE—All human beings are mortal.MINOR PREMISE—Ann is a human being.CONCLUSION—Therefore, Ann is mortal.
existential fallacy when a particular conclusion is drawn fromtwo universal premises.
hypothetical syllogisms “if-then” form.
Denial-Affirmation “either/or”statements
The Fallacy of Division attempt to argue that what is true of the whole is true of its parts
Circular Reasoning (begging the question) a conclusionthat a person is arguing for is already assumed to be true in one of theargument’s premises.
The Either/Or Fallacy (all-or-nothing, black/white, false delima) )= not acknowledging that (1) both alternatives could betrue, (2) gray areas exist between the two alternatives, or (3) other possibilitiesexist
Inductive reasoning set of evidence or observationsabout some members of a class, or about some events-From this evidence or observationwe draw a conclusion about other members of the class, or other events
Analogical argument form of inductive reasoning that rests on the similaritiesbetween two things.
Hasty Generalization a conclusion is drawn from a sample thatis too small or selective to assume with any confidence that it represents the subjectaccurately.
reasonable generalization has alarge enough sample to warrant an inference
composition fallacy assumes that what is trueof the whole’s parts is true of the whole.
post hoc ergo propter hoc(“after this, therefore, because of this”) if an event follows X, it is thereforecaused by X.
extravagant hypothesis fallacy the formulation of a complex or unlikely explanation for an event when a simplerexplanation would do
false analogy (weak analogy) similarities betweentwo things being compared are not substantial enough to assume that anothercharacteristic of one of them probably applies to the other.
Slippery Slope once a person initiates an action, there is no stopping it untilit hits bottom.
geneticfallacy mistaken belief that the origin of an idea has some bearing on thetruth or falsity of it
appeal to authority. People use it whenever theyjustify their values and ideas by appealing to an authoritative source
Appeal to tradition attempt to justify a practice or policy because ithas “always” been that way.
is/ought fallacy argue that because something is the case, it therefore ought to be thecase.
bandwagon appeal appeal topopularity.
appeal to ignorance states a position to be true, or at least well-supported, by appealing tothe fact that there is no evidence to “prove” the position false
Created by: ladylamberth1
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