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What are 2 assumptions of this approach? - There are 3 parts to the personality; id, ego and superego. Id vs superego. - The mind is structured like an iceberg. The conscious mind is above the surface and is logical whereas the unconscious mind below the surface is irrational.
What is the role of the unconscious mind? This part of the mind isn't accessible to conscious thought. Freud believed most of our everyday behaviors are the product of our unconscious mind which reveal itself by Freudian slips.
What is the id? The id- operates in the unconscious mind and contains the libido and it operates according to the pleasure principle. Only the id is present at birth and throughout life the id is entirely selfish and demands instant gratification of needs.
What is the ego? The ego- balances the desires of the id and the moralistic demands of the superego. The ego develops at the age of two years and its focus is to reduce conflict between the id and superego.
What is the superego? The superego- this is formed at the age of five and within the phallic stage of development. It is our sense of what is right and wrong. It represents the moral standards of the same sex parent and punishes the ego for things we do wrong.
Give a definition of defense mechanisms They are triggered unconsciously and work by distorting reality so that anxiety is reduced. By using them, the individual stops themselves from becoming aware of any unpleasant thoughts and feeling associated with the traumatic situation.
What is repression? Repression- stops unacceptable thoughts and impulses. These repressed thoughts and impulses continue to influence behavior without the individual being aware of the reasons behind their behavior.
What is denial? Denial- refuses to accept reality and avoids having to deal with any painful feelings that may be associated with that event. The individual acts as if the painful or stressful event hasn't happened.
What is displacement? Displacement- involves the redirecting of thoughts or feelings in situations where the person feels unable to express them at the person they should be directing them towards.
What are the first two psycho sexual stages? Oral- 0-2 years- Focus of pleasure is the mouth, mothers breast is desired. Anal- 2-3 years- Focus of pleasure is the anus. Child gains pleasure from holding onto and expelling their faeces.
What are the consequences if these first two stages are unresolved? Oral fixation (too much pleasure)- smoking, nail biting Oral aggressive (not enough)- sarcastic sense of humor, critical of others.
What are the last three psycho sexual stages? Phallic- 3-5 years- Focus of pleasure is the genital area (oedipus and electra complex) Latency- 6-12 years- Conflicts and issues of the previous stages are repressed. Genital- 12+- Sexual desires become conscious alongside the onset of puberty.
What are the consequences if these last three stages are unresolved? Phallic personality- narcissistic, reckless, possible homosexual. Genital- difficulty forming heterosexual relationships.
What is the oedipus complex? The boy experiences intense sexual feelings for his mother. The boy sees dad as his competition and is worried that his dad will castrate(castration anxiety). To deal with anxiety, the boy befriends his dad and dad sees son as ally (identification).
What is the electra complex? Girls realize they don't have a penis and think mum has removed it and at age 3 they develop penis envy. When desire isn't fulfilled, it is expressed through desire to have a baby. Girl has sexual desires for her father and goes through identification.
Why is it deterministic? P- Can be accused of psychic determinism. E- Accidents don't exist. E- Freudian slips W- Implies all behavior is determined by unconscious conflicts. Free will is an illusion.
Why isn't it reductionist? P- Takes an interactionist approach of nature and nurture. E- We pass through fixed developmental stages (nature) and the environment (nurture). E- Innate drives and libido forces us through psycho sexual stages S- Explains why personalities vary
What is the supporting research? E- Supporting research comes from case studies and clinical interviews. E- Little Hans developed a fear of horses and Freud said it's the oedipus complex. Boys ego is displayed on horse. S- Increases validity and have qualitative data.
What is the real life application? P- Led to effective therapies. E- Has been applied. E- Psychoanalysis was created to help people with neurotic symptoms using dream analysis. S- Gives credibility.
Why is having data from case studies and clinical interviews a weakness? E- Theory was based on the intensive study of single individuals. E- Little Hans W- Can't make universal claims based on studies of such small number of people.
Created by: emilyhcrooks