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9Sci CH21

9th Science CH21 Electricity

circuit a closed path through which electrons (electricity) flow
conductor a material that allows electrons to move easily through it
current the flow of electrons through a wire or any conductor; measured in amperes (A) with an ammeter
dry cell a power source that acts as an electron pump and generates electrical current by a chemical reaction; “dry” because it uses a thick, pasty electrolyte
electric field any area surrounding an electron that exerts a force on anything nearby with an electric charge; is strongest nearest the electron and weakens with distance
electrical power the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy; electrical power is expressed in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW)
electroscope a device containing two suspended metal leaves in a jar that move apart when charged; used to detect the presence of electrical charges
insulator a material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily
kilowatt-hour the unit of electrical energy; 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh)=1000 watts (W) of power used for one hour
Ohm’s law states that potential difference=current x resistance, or V (volts) = I (amperes) x R (ohms)
parallel circuit an electrical circuit where the current flows through more than one path; if one path is interrupted, current will still flow through the other paths
potential difference the difference in electric potential energy between two different points; measured in volts (V)
resistance the opposition to the flow of electrons through a conductor; measured in ohms
series circuit an electrical circuit where the current has only one path; if one path is interrupted in any point, it stops current flow in the entire circuit
static electricity the net buildup of electric charges of an object
wet cell a power source that generates electric current by a chemical reaction; “wet” because it uses a liquid electrolyte