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9Sci CH20

9th science CH20 Mirrors and Lenses

coherent light a beam of light in which all the electromagnetic waves travel with the crests and troughs aligned; thus the beam does not spread out
concave lens lenses that are thinner in the middle and thicker at the edges and thus curve inward; form virtual, upright, smaller images of an object
concave mirror a mirror whose surface curves inward produces real images
convex lens lenses that are thicker in the middle than the edges; can produce both real and virtual images
convex mirror a mirror with a surface that curves outward; produces smaller, virtual images of an object
focal length the distance from the center of a lens or mirror to its focal point
focal point a point on the optical axis of a concave mirror or convex lens where the light rays come together
incoherent light light rays that are nearly parallel, but spread out because their electromagnetic waves do not travel in the same direction; crests and troughs do not coincide
laser a device that emits a beam of photons that travel in the same direction and phase, producing a beam of coherent light
microscope an optical instrument that uses two convex lenses with relatively short focal lengths to magnify small, close-up objects
optical fiber transparent glass fiber that can transmit light from one place to another
plane mirror a mirror with a flat surface that produces a virtual image
polarized light light in which the transverse waves vibrate only along one plane
real image an image produced when light rays converge, as with a concave mirror or convex len; a real image is real, enlarged, upside-down, and can be projected only a screen
reflecting telescope an optical instrument that uses a concave mirror, a plane mirror, and a convex lens to magnify distant objects
refracting telescope an optical instrument that uses two convex lenses to magnify distant objects
telephoto lens a lens having a long focal length and producing an enlarged, close-up image of an object
total internal reflection occurs when all the light striking a surface between two materials is reflected totally back into the first material
virtual image an image formed of diverging light rays, as in a plane or convex mirror, or seen through a concave lens; a virtual image can’t be projected onto a screen
wide-angle lens a lens with a short focal length that produces a relatively small image of an object, but includes much of the object’s surroundings