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9Sci CH17

9th Science CH17 Acids, Bases, and Salts

acid a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; acid solutions have a pH less than 7
acid rain rain with a pH less than 5.6 produced by substances in the air reacting with rainwater to make it acidic; acid rain in harmful to animals and plants and increases the rate of weathering
base a substance that produces hydroxide ions in solution; basic solutions have a pH over 7
dehydrating agent a substance that can remove water from minerals
detergent an organic salt similar to soap, except that detergents do not form soap scum in hard water
ester an organic compound formed by reacting an organic acid with an alcohol; some esters provide scents to flowers and fruits and flavors to gelatin and candy
hydronium ion the ion that makes a solution acidic; formed when a polar molecule such as HCI is dissolved in water and the H+ is removed from the polar molecule
indicator an organic compound that changes color in an acidic solution or a basic solution
neutralization a chemical reaction between an acid and a base
pH a measure of hydronium ion concentration in solution; expressed on the pH scale from 0 to 14 from 7 to 0, a solution is increasingly acidic; at 7 it is neutral (pure water); from 7 to 14, a solution is increasingly basic
pickling a process that removes impurities from the surfaces of steel and other metals by dipping them in hydrochloric acid
plankton tiny plants and animals that live in water and are food for small fish; they are easily killed by acid rain
salt a compound formed during a neutralization reaction when negative ions from an acid combine with positive ions from a bases
saponification the process of making soap
soap an organic salt made by reacting fat or oils with a strong base such as sodium hydroxide
strong acid an acid that ionizes almost completely in solution; for example, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid
strong base a base that dissociates completely in solution; for example sodium hydroxide
titration process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of an acidic or base solution
weak acid an acid that partially ionizes in solution; for example, carbonic acid
weak base a bases that partially dissociates in solution; for example, magnesium hydroxide