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9Sci CH13

9th Science CH13 Organic and Biological Compounds

TermDefinition
alcohol type of compound formed when --OH groups replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon
aromatic compound chemical compounds that contain the benzene ring structure; most have distinctive odors
biogas mixture of gases,mostly methane, produced when biomass is allowed to rot in the absence of air
biomass organic material from such sources as wood, corn, and wastes from animals and crops; biomass is the source of biogas and the ethanol used in gasohol
carbohydrate an organic compound having twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms
energy farming the growing of plants for use as fuel
gasohol a mixture of ethanol and gasoline that is a useful substitute for gasoline, but whose production may be damaging to the environment; a biomass fuel
hydrocarbon a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms
isomers compounds that have identical chemical formulas but different molecular structures and shapes
lipid fats, oils, and related organic compounds
nucleic acid an organic polymer that controls the activities and reproduction of cells
organic compound most chemical compounds that contain the element carbon are organic compounds; more than 90 percent of all compounds are organic
polymer a huge molecule made up of many smaller organic molecules, called monomers, that have formed new bonds and are linked together
protein organic polymer formed from amino acids
saturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon that contains only single-bonded carbon atoms; an example is propane
substituted hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements
unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbons that contain at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms; an example is ethyne