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9Sci CH10

9th Science CH10 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

atomic number the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus
average atomic mass the average mass of an element is the average mass of the mixture of its isotopes
chemical symbol a shorthand way to write the name of an element; for example C for carbon, Ag for silver
dot diagram a diagram to represent electrons in the outer energy level of an atom; uses the element symbol and dots
electron negatively charged particles that move around the nucleus of an atom
electron cloud region where electrons most probably are found surrounding the nucleus of an atom
group in the periodic table, each of the 18 vertical columns of elements; each group (family) is made up of elements with similar properties
isotope atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons; for example, boron-10 and boron-11
mass number sum of the number if protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus
metal elements usually having these common properties: shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity; are solids at room temperature; in the periodic table, metals are found at the left of the stair-step line
metalloid elements having properties of both metals and nonmetals; in the periodic table metalloids are found along the stair-step line that separates metals from nonmetals
neutron atomic particle with no charge (neutral) that is part of an atom’s nucleus
nonmetal elements that usually are gases or brittle solids at room temperature; most do not conduct heat or electricity well; in the periodic table, nonmetals are found at the right of the stair-step line
nucleus the positively charged center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
period a horizontal row in the periodic table
periodic table a table of the elements arranged according to repeated changes in properties
proton atomic particle with a positive charge that is part of an atom’s nucleus
quark very small particles of matter that make up protons and neutrons; presently six different types of quarks are known