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9Sci CH8

9th Science CH8 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Archimedes’ principle the Greek mathematician Archimedes stated that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Bernoulli’s principle the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli stated that as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
Boyle’s law British scientist Robert Boyle stated that the volume of a gas decreases when the pressure increases, provided the temperature stays the same
buoyant force ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in the fluid
Charles’s law French scientist Jacques Charles stated that the volume of a gas increases when temperature increases, provided the pressure stays the same
condensation the change of a substance from a gas to a liquid, which usually takes place when a gas is cooled to or below its boiling point
crystal in most solids, the arrangements of particles in repeating geometric patterns
evaporation the gradual change of a substance from a liquid to a gas at temperatures below the boiling point
heat of fusion the amount of energy needed to change a material from the solid state to the liquid state
heat of vaporization the amount of energy needed to change a material from a liquid to a gas
kinetic theory of matter the idea that all matter is made up of constantly moving, tiny particles
pascal the SI unit of pressure; 1 pascal (Pa) of pressure = 1 newton/square meter
Pascal’s principle French scientist Blaise Pascal stated that pressure applied to the fluid is transmitted unchanged through the fluid
plasma a gas-like mixture of charged particles that exists at extremely high temperatures
polluted water water that contains high levels of unwanted substances that may be harmful to living organisms
pressure the amount of force exerted per unit of an area
states of matter any of the four conditions in which matter can exist; solid, liquid, gas, or plasma; the state of a sample of matter depends on its temperature
thermal expansion a characteristic of almost all matter that causes it to expand when heated and contract when cooled
thermal pollution pollution caused when waste heat raises the temperature of the environment; thermal pollution in bodies of water can damage or destroy plants and animals that live there
Venturi effect reduction in pressure of a fluid resulting from the speed increase as fluids are forced to flow faster through narrow spaces