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9Sci CH5

9th Science CH5 Energy

energy the ability to cause change
heat thermal energy that flows from a warmer material to a cooler material
kinetic energy energy in the form of motion, as in a moving car or truck; the greater the mass and velocity of a moving object the more kinetic energy it has
law of conservation of energy a law stating that energy can change form but cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions; this law applies to systems in which energy cannot enter or exit the system
mechanical energy the total amount of kinetic energy and potential energy in a system
potential energy stored energy; the amount of potential energy of an object depends on its position or condition
specific heat the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material to 1 K; it is measured in joules per kilogram per kelvin
temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a sample of matter; as an object’s particles move faster, its temperature rises,and as an object’s particles move slower, its temperature falls
thermal energy total energy of a material’s particles, including both kinetic energy (vibrations and movement within and between particles) and potential energy (resulting from forces that act within or between particles)
thermal pollution pollution caused when waste heat raises the temperature of the environment; thermal pollution in bodies of water can damage or destroy plants and animals that live there.
work the transfer of energy through motion; work=force x distance; work is measured in joules and is accomplished only when force produces motion in the direction of the force