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9Sci CH4

9th Science CH4 Acceleration and Motion

TermDefinition
air resistance frictional force air exerts on a moving object; acts opposite in direction to the object’s motion; the amount of air resistance depends on an object’s shape, density, speed, and size
artificial satellite human-made device that orbits Earth; used for communication, weather-monitoring, military, and scientific purposes
centripetal acceleration acceleration toward the center of an object by an object moving along a circular path
law of conservation of momentum a law stating that the total momentum of a group of objects is conserved unless a net force acts on the objects
momentum a property of any moving object; the momentum (p) of an object is the product of its mass and velocity (p=mv)
Newton’s second law of motion describes the acceleration of an object in the direction of the net force applied to it; expressed in equation form as force=mass x acceleration or F=ma
Newton’s third law of motion describes action-reaction pairs; for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force
projectile any object shot or thrown through the air; all projectiles have both horizontal and vertical velocities
terminal velocity the greatest velocity reached by a falling object; terminal velocity is achieved when the force of gravity is balanced by air resistance