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8Sci CH10

8th Science CH10 Organic Chemistry

TermDefinition
alcohol family of compounds that contain oxygen in the form of hydroxyl (---OH) groups; alcohols are formed when an ---OH group replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon; alcohols are used in fuel, disinfectants, and chemical manufacture
amines organic compounds produced when an amine group (---NH2) replaces one or more hydrogens in a hydrocarbon; amino acids, which are a type of amine-substituted hydrocarbon, form when both the ---NH2 and ---COOH groups replace hydrogens on the same molecule
carbohydrates organic compounds containing twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms; carbohydrates provide energy for the body, and a balanced diet gets 50% of its calories from carbohydrate-rich foods such as pasta, rice, beans, and fruit
carboxylic acid group of substituted hydrocarbons formed by the displacement of a ---CH3 group by a carboxyl (---COOH ) group
hydrocarbon compound that can be composed only of hydrogen and carbon or can form new compounds when other chemical groups are substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms; isomers
lipids greasy-feeling organic compounds that contain twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates; lipids include waxes, oils, and fats; a balanced diet gets 30% of its calories from fats ( found in meats, nuts, and ice cream),which provide energy for the body
organic compound carbon-containing substance; millions of organic compounds can be synthesized from raw materials containing carbon because carbon’s atomic structure allows it to combine with so many other elements
polymers large molecule composed of smaller organic molecules called monomers, linked together, forming new bands; some polymers are used in the manufacture of plastics; polymers are also found in biological compounds-mainly proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
proteins organic compounds composed of long chains of amino acids; proteins are present in every living substance and are needed for growth and renewal of the body; a balanced diet gets 20% of its calories from protein sources as milk, tofu, and fish