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8Sci CH7

8th Science CH7 Molecules in Motion

absolute zero coldness limit at which there can be no further cooling; at absolute zero (-273.15C) the kinetic energy of molecules is decreased to zero
boiling formation of bubbles rising to the surface of heated water that occurs when the pressure of water vapor escaping from the liquid’s surface equals air pressure; boiling allows the water particles to gain enough kinetic energy to break away and become a gas
condensation process in which gas is changed into a liquid
evaporation process of a liquid changing into a gas; molecules with the highest kinetic energy evaporate from the surface first, which lowers the average kinetic energy of the molecules still in the liquid
kinetic-molecular theory states that all ions, atoms, or molecules composing all forms of matter are in constant motion; the higher the temperature, the faster the particles move; explains familiar behaviors of matter like boiling, evaporation, melting, and expansion
sublimation process in which a solid is changed into a gas without first becoming a liquid
thermal expansion in a solid, the expansion that occurs as it is heated, resulting in its kinetic energy increasing and its particles moving farther apart
viscosity resistance of a liquid to changing its shape; the stronger the attractive forces holding a liquid’s molecules together, the higher its viscosity; different liquids have different viscosity