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8Sci CH5

8th Science CH5 The Periodic Table

alkali metals column 1 elements in the periodic table of elements; alkali metals are so reactive that they are never found uncombined in nature
alkaline earth metals in the periodic table of elements, alkaline earth metals are column 2 elements such as magnesium, strontium, and barium, and are not as reactive as alkali metals
atomic mass average mass of the isotope of an element found in nature; calculated by determining the average mass of a sample of the element’s atoms
atomic number the number of protons in an atom of the element; atoms of the same element always have the same number of protons; elements appear in the periodic table of elements in order of increasing atomic number
family of elements organizational group in the periodic table of elements in which the elements are listed in vertical columns based on their similar physical and chemical properties
isotopes atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons; radioactive isotopes can be used to precisely determine levels of drugs, hormones, or viruses in a patient’s body.
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
period one of the 7 horizontal rows in the periodic table of elements; each period starts as the pattern of chemical and physical properties of the elements begins to repeat itself; a period is made up of a series of elements with increasing atomic number
periodic table organizes all known elements into a table based on atomic mass & structure, and helps you predict how elements will react with one another; elements are organized into columns and rows and shows an element’s atomic number, symbol, name, and atomic mass