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7Sci CH17

7th Science CH17 Basic Units of Life

cell basic unit of structure and function in all living things; more than 10 trillion in the human body; each has a specific job to do
cell membrane flexible, double-layered, outer covering of most cells; surrounds the cell’s cytoplasm
cell wall adaptation of plants, fungi, and bacteria, outside the cell membrane; provides support and protection for the cell
chloroplasts structures of the cytoplasm of green plant cells, contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that lets plant produce their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy in a sugar called glucose
chromosomes threadlike structures found in the nucleus of plant and animal cells, made up of protein and DNA, the molecule that control the cell’s activities, including its reproduction; can only be seen when a cell is dividing
cytoplasm gel-like, constantly moving material found inside the cell membrane of both plants and animals where most of the cell’s life processes take place
mitochondria power plants in the cell’s cytoplasm in which energy is released for organisms to do their work; food molecules are broken down here and converted into forms the cell can use
mitosis reproductive process of cells in which the cell nucleus divides so each new cell will have the same type and number of chromosomes as the parent cell; the original cell becomes two identical cells through this process
nucleus membrane-enclosed command center in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells; has chromosomes that contain complex chemical information that directs all the cell’s activities, including its reproduction