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Areas of Practice

Lesson 10: Natural Resources and Environmental Quality

QuestionAnswer
Earth Day First day April 22, 1970
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California Created 1927 in order to create the Colorado River Aqueduct Built between 1933 and 1941 and is operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern CA
Rachel Carson Author of Silent Spring
Effluent Standards Set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment
Point Source Pollution Discharge directly from a specific site
Non-Point Source Pollution Contaminated runoff from many sources
Potable Water Water that is safe to drink
Aquifer One or more strata of rock or sediment that is saturated and sufficiently permeable to yield economically significant quantities of water to wells or springs
Estuary An area where freshwater meets saltwater
Lagoon Shallow body of water that is located along side a coast
March Type of freshwater or saltwater wetland found along rivers, ponds, lakes, and coasts
Reservoir A pond, lake, tank or basin that can be used for the storage and control of water, and can be either natural or man-made
Surface Water Includes rivers, lakes, oceans, ocean-like waterbodies, and coastal tidal water
Swamp Is a freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water
Watershed A region drained by, or contributing water to, a surface body
Wetlands Areas that are inundated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soils. Include swamps, marshes, bogs, anthd other similar areas.
Clean Air Act Passed in 1970 - first set of air pollution standards. Four major programs
Four programs of Clean Air Act 1. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 2. State Implementation Plans (SIPS) 3. National Emissions Standards of Hazardous Air Pollutatns (NESHAPS) 4. New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)
Clean Air Act 1977 Concerned with the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) and requirements for non-attainment areas
Clean Air Act 1990 Control of acid rain and operating permits for industrial facilities for air quality
Clean Water Act Passed in 1977 and was passed after the Cuyahoga River caught on fire. Regulates that amount of pollutants can be discharged and who can discharge
Pollution Control Act Passed in 1948. Provided research and technical relating to air pollution control
Point Source Pollution Discharge Permit Must be obtained from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSP) Relates to air quality and requires that a project will not increase emissions above a specified PSD increment
Ambient Air Quality Standards Maximum air contaminant concentrations allowed in the ambient air
Non-Attainment Areas Areas considered to have air quality worse than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. As of 2002 there were 124 non-attainment areas
National Environmental Policy Act Passed in 1968. Resulted in the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality. Act requires that the environmental impacts of a project to be considered (EA & EIS)
Environmental Assessment (EA) Is required to determine whether there is a significant environmental impact
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Required for federal projects significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If an EA determines that there is a significant impact then an EIS is required.
Rivers and Harbors of 1899 Prohibited the construction of any bridge, dam, dike, or causeway over any navigable waterway in the US without congressional approval
Water Pollution Control Air of 1948 First act to address water pollution. 1. Allowed the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service to prepare comprehensive program for eliminating pollution in interstate waters to improve sanitary conditions of surface water
Water Pollution Control Air of 1948 and... 2. Allowed federal works administration to assist government agencies to construct treatments plants
Water Quality Act of 1965 Established the Water Pollution Control Administration within the department of the interior. First time water quality was treated as an environmental concern rather than public health concern
Clean Water Act of 1966 Provided construction grants of watershed treatments facilities
Halliburton Loophole Under President George W. Bush - loophole for fracking
Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 Creates permits for projects in coastal waterways Later amended in 1990, focused to reduce polluted in 29 coastal states.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 Amended Water Pollution Act of 1948. Act changed the enforcement from water quality standards of regulating the amount of pollutants being discharged from particular point sources
Endangered Species Act of 1973 Provided protection of animal and plant species that the US Fish and Wildlife Service designated as threatened or endangered
Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 Promoted alternative energy sources, energy efficiency, and reduced dependence on foreign oil
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Created a $1.6 billion superfund to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites and requires major industries to report annual releases of toxic waste into the air, water or ground
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 Provided the EPA with the ability to control hazardous waste from the "cradle to grave"
Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 Provided EPA with responsibility for reporting, record-keeping and testing requirements, and restrictions relations to chemical substances and/or mixtures
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Originally passed in 1947. Established procedures for registering pesticides with the US Department of Agriculture and established labeling provisions
FIFRA of 1972 Allowed EPA oversee the sales and use of pesticides with emphasis on the preservation of human health and protection of the environment.
FIFRA 1972 Framework 1 strengthening the registration process by shifting the burden of proof to the chemical manufacturer, 2 enforcing compliance against banned and unregistered products 3 promulgating the regulatory framework
Safe Drinking Water Act Passed in 1974. Ensures that drinking water is safe.
Brownfields Real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant. Also known as a Superfund Site.
Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Passed in 1980. Identify hazardous material. CERCLA authorized "superfund" clean up responses. EPA identifies responsible party. More than 1,200 superfund sites in the US.
Civil Rights Act, Title VI - Executive Order Executive order 12898. Issued by President Clinton in 1994. Requires that federal agencies strive to make achieving environmental justice part of their mission.
Created by: amshinn18