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X-ray ARRT

Radiology Registry

Photoelectric Interaction Ionization. The photon strikes a K-shell electron & is completely absorbed --> electron getting ejected. Produces radiographic contrast as a result of the differential absorption of the incoming x-ray photons in the body's tissues.
Compton Interaction Ionization. Partial transfer of energy from photon--> outer shell electron, removing it from orbit. Produces recoil electron & incident xray photon scatters. Loses contrast b/c photons lose energy when they change direction. Most common inter. in body.
Coherent Interaction (i.e. classical) Ionization doesn't occur b/c the electron is not removed, but vibrate (no transfer of energy). Loses contrast b/c some photons lose energy when they change direction.
Pair Production Interaction Does not occur in Radiography. The incident x-ray escapes interaction w/electrons but interacts with the nucleus of an atom, causing the x-ray to disappear.
Neurogenic Shock Failure of arterial resistance -->causes blood to pool in peripheral vessels due to an injury in the nervous system (head/spinal trauma).
Hypovolemic Shock Follows loss of large amount of blood/plasma.
Septic Shock Occurs when toxins produced during massive infection that increases capillary permeability -->cause a dramatic decrease in blood pressure
Cardiogenic Shock Results from cardiac failure or other interference w/heart function.
Gray A unit of absorbed dose in tissue. # radiation present in the beam that is absorbed by the pt.
Sievert A unit of effective/equivalent dose. Includes ionizing effects of xray/gamma/beta rays & particle radiation. Uses conversion factors that compare the type of radiation to biological effects.
Coulombs/kilogram A unit of radiation exposure in the air (xray beam).
Becquerel Unit of radioactivity. # atoms decaying/sec. Only used for Nuc Med.
Linear Energy Transfer Amount of energy deposited by radiation per unit length of tissue. The greater the rad, the greater the biological damage. Alpha & neutrons are high, xrays & gamma rays are low.
Relative Biological Effectiveness Ability to produce biological damage; varies with LET. The greater the radiation, the greater the biological damage.
Autotransformer (i.e variable transformer) Varies the voltage (kVp selector) going to the primary coil for the step-up transformer. Operates on principle of self-induction. Needs AC to operate.
Rectifier Responsible for current conversion. Changes AC-->DC. Made of solid-state silcon-based n-type & d-type diodes
Step up/down transformer Operates on principle of mutual induction. Needs AC to operate. Change electric voltage/current into higher/lower values.
Rheostat The mA selector. Type of variable resistor. Controls filament temp by adjusting the resistance that is applied to the filament. Measures the current flowing into the xray tube.
Attenuation Absorption and scatter (loss of intensity) of the xray beam as it passes thru the pt. The IR receives a greater # of high-energy photons b/c the lower energy ones are absorbed by the pt.
Bremsstrahlung Production When an incident electron gets driven off path by the nucleus & slows down, changing direction. Reduction in K.E. produces an xray photon. Most diagnostic levels of x-rays are produced this way (90%). Responsible for heterogeneous nature of the xray beam.
Characteristic Production When an incident electron knocks an orbital electron out of orbit. When space filled in, the diff. in changing energy levels = xray photon. Energy is depend. upon the binding energies of the target material (only above 70 kVp). Cascade effect.
Stochastic Effects (i.e. probabilistic) Randomly occurring effects of radiation; the probability of such effects is proportional to the dose (increased dose = increased probability, not severity, of effects).
Deterministic Effects Effects of radiation that become more severe at high levels of radiation exposure and do not occur below a certain threshold (cartaracts). Linear-nonthreshold dose curve response.
Somatic Effects Effects of radiation on the body being radiated. 46 chromosomes. Mitosis. Early: Hematopoietic, GI, CNS syndromes = death Late: Cancer, cataracts, shortened lifespan, embryologic effects (1st trimester).
Genetic Effects Effects of radiation on the genetic code of a cell; affects the next generation. 23 chromosomes. Meiosis.
Direct Effect Effect that occurs when radiation directly strikes DNA in the cellular nucleus.
Indirect Effect Effect that occurs when radiation strikes the water molecules in the cytoplasm of the cell (radiolysis). Creates free radicals; HOH+ and e- Can create H2O2 & H+
Syncope Fainting. A mild form of shock. The bp lowers, heart slows and blood vessels increase--> low O2.
Blood pressure Measured in systolic pressure/diastolic pressure. Normal 120/80.
OSL dosimeter Optically Stimulated Luminescence. Uses aluminum oxide to detect. Measures as low as 10µGy. Must change 4x/yr.
TLD dosimeter Thermoluminescent. Uses lithium fluoride crystals to detect. Measures as low as 50µGy. Lasts longer than film.
Film dosimeter Uses film, aluminum copper filters, plastic case. Measures energy low as 100µGy. Must change monthly. Sensitive to temp/humidity.
Grid Frequency Strips per inch. As the frequency increases, the thickness of the strips decreases. Ranges from 60-150 in.
Grid Ratio The Height of the lead strips/by the Distance between the lead strips aluminum interspacers). H/D. 5:1 (2), 6:1 (3), 8:1 (4), 12:1 (5), 16:1 (6).
Grid Conversion Factor (i.e. bucky factor) Amount needed to change mAs for using/not using a grid. No grid-->grid = mAsXGCF Grid-->no grid = mAs/GCF
Single phase generator Requires pulsating DC. 4 diodes. Voltage drops to 0 every 120/sec. 2 pulses/cycle. 100% ripple.
Three phase, six pulse generator Requires pulsating DC. 6 diodes. Voltage never drops to 0 b/c 3-phase current. 360/sec. 13% ripple. Uses 87% kVp set. Produces 35% higher average energy (kVp) than single
Three phase, twelve pulse generator Requires pulsating DC. 12 diodes. Voltage never drops to 0 b/c 3-phase current. 720/sec. 4% ripple. Uses 96% kVp set. Produces 41% higher average energy (kVp) than single
High Frequency generator Requires pulsating DC. 12 diodes. Voltage never drops to 0. 1% ripple. Uses 99% kVp set.
Molecule A compound's smallest component, which still has the characteristics of the compound.
Atom the smallest particle of an element capable of entering into a reaction
Element a substance made up of atoms with the same atomic number and the same chemical properties; it cannot be broken down further without changing its chemical properties.
Grid contrast improvement factor The measure of a grid's ability to enhance contrast. Expressed as the ratio of the contrast w/ a grid to the contrast w/o a grid. Represented by the letter "K"
Grid selectivity A ratio of how much scatter vs primary beam the grid removes. The higher the grid frequency & grid ratio, the more selective it will be when absorbing scatter
Grid radius the SID at which a focused grid must be used. The focal range is narrow for high-ratio grids; there is a greater chance for cutoff to occur.
Off-level grid A grid error that will result in an image that shows decreased IR exposure across the entire radiograph. No portion of the beam has a clear path through the grid, resulting in decreased density visible over the entire radiograph.
Lateral decentering of grid A grid error that will result in visible cutoff more to 1 side of the radiograph.
Grid-focus decentering A grid error that will result in an image that shows normal density in the middle but decreased density on the sides. Caused by a violation of the grid radius.
Upside down grid A grid error that will result in an image that shows normal IR exposure in the middle but decreased IR exposure on the sides & may follow removal/ replacement of the grid
Radiation Weighting Factor Used to modify the absorbed dose amount to account for the greater damage inflicted by some forms of ionizing radiation.
Scaphoid fx tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox (overlies the scaphoid/radial artery). A depression formed when the thumb is abducted & extended by 2 tendons of the thumb. Most commonly fractured carpal bone.
Colles fx the distal radius w/ post. displacement. Typically, the result of a fall on the outstretched hand.
Bennett fx @ base of the 1st metacarpal
Boxer fx a transverse fracture of the neck of the 5th metacarpal marked by palmar angulation of the distal fracture fragment.
Pott fx 1 of the medial & lateral malleoli of the ankle w/ ankle joint dislocation.
Trimalleolar fx of the post. portion of the tibia & the medial & lateral malleoli.
Jefferson fx Comminuted fx of the ring of the atlas (ant&post).
Hangman fx C2 arch fx & subuxation of C2 onto C3. Cause by MVA & acute hyperextsnion of the head.
Seatbelt fx Transverse lumbar fx & abdominal injuries
Created by: Crimsondrop7
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