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PT 670 Motor Learn

What is motor learning? Neural adaptations associated with practice and experience that lead to a long term change in the ability to produce skilled movement
Four main concepts of motor learning 1, Process of acquiring the capability for movement 2. Requires experience and practice 3. cannot be measured directly 4. produces relatively permanent changes to movement
Learning considerations 1. Instruction 2. practice: blocked vs. random 3. feedback: quantity or quality 4. eval. learning versus performance
What considerations are made for quality of feedback? KP (knowledge of performance) and KR (knowledge of results)
Motor Performance considerations change in behavor observed during practice session may or may not reflect long term learning
What factors influence performance? fatigue, anxiety, motivation, mood, environment, motivation
Procedural (Implicit) learning 1. skill performed automatically without attention or consjous thought 2. not highly dependent on awareness, attention or high level cognitve process 3. devel. thru reps and practice rely on basal gnaglia, cerebellum, prefrontal areas and assoc. cortices
Declarative (explicit) learning 1. Knowledge that can be consciously recalled and expressed 2. awarenes, attention and relection is important 3. rely on medial temporal lobe, neocortex, amygdala, diencephalon
Emphasis on which type of learning to choose when teaching a patient, depends on what? 1. integirty of CNS and sensory syst. 2. depends on where he or she is in the learning process
stages of motor learning 1. Cognitive: What to do? 2. Associative: How to do? 3. Autonomous: How to succeed?
Clinical implication of 3-stage model 1. stage 1- much attention, lots of errors 2. stage 2- more effective and efficient dev. optimal strategy 3. stage 3: do the task while carrying on a conversation
Factors that influence motor learning 1. instructions 2. practice 3. feedback 4. indiv. differences
Factors when considering instructions 1. demonstration 2. focus attention to specific aspects of movement 3. limit quantity and details of info to match cognitive abilities
factors when considering practice 1. environmental 2. blocked vs. random (acquisition blocked is better, random for long term learning) 3. part versus whole task 4. mental practice 5. guidance/cues/assist
factors when considering feedback 1. intrinsic (sensory into) 2. extrinsic (augmented) verbal, tactile, biofeedback, visual (mirror)
Other examples of extrinsic feedback knowledge of results vs. knowledge of performance
TIming of feedback 1. simple tasks- after each trial 2. KR less freq. prod. better results 3. feedback sched. best given after 5 trials
Types of feedback that support long term learning 1, delayed 2. summed 3. faded 4. bandwidth
Individual differences to consider 1. age 2. cognitive ability 3. motivation 4. physical chara. 5. motor control
Best in cognitive stage 1. demonstration 2. task into parts 3. manual guidance 4. stress use over vision 5. blocked practice 6. feedback on correct performance (not errors)
Best in associative stage 1. fade verbal and tactile FB 2. practice whole tasks 3. give FB early in movement or after 4. ID consistent movement errors 5. allow mistakes 6. allow self-eval and problem solving
Best in autonomous stage 1. allow learner to correct own errors 2. vary envir. conditions 3. remove all verbal and tactile inputs 4. ID movement errors
Created by: 696592119



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