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PT 670 Motor Control

What is motor control? The ability to regulate or direct the mechanisms essential to movement.
Movements we control? Stabilizing in space and Movement in space
Motor control answers these questions: 1. HOw CNS orgs. indiv. muscles and joints and coords movement 2. how sensory info from envir. and body is used to select adn contol movement 3. how perceptions, tasks, and envir where we move influence movements 4. best way to study movement
Many theories of motor control 1. reflex chain theory 2. hierarchy 3. motor programming 4. systems 5. dynamical action 6. parallel distributed processing theory 7. task-oriented 8. ecological theory
what are Theories of motor control ? group of abstract ideas based on scientific data to explain control of movement
Three things that influence a peron's movement 1. Motor task 2. environment 3. Individual
Individual constraints on motor control 1. cognition 2. attention 3. perception 4. arousal 5. sensation 6. flexibility 7. strength 8. tone 9. movement patterns
Individual consideration for motor learning 1. stages of learning 2. feedback 3. practice 5. indiv. learning style
Individual consideration for developmental strategies 1. mobility 2.stability 3. controlled mobility 4. skill
Classifications of tasks 1. Body action (stability or moility) 2. Organization (discrete or continuous) 3. UE Manipulation (none or complex) 4. Motor or cognitive focus 5. inter-trial avariability 6. Envir. Predictability
What to consider about stability versus a mobility task is the BOS still or in motion
What to consider about task organization? Is there a recognizable beginning and end? Discrete, Continuous, Serial (order is crucial)
What to consider about Upper extremity manipulation? is interaction with an object present or absent?
What to consider about motor versus cognitive elements? Primary determinant of movement success: quality or decision about which movement to make
What to consider about inter-trial variability is the movement executed in the same manner each time it is performed
Key points about open tasks 1. variable and flexible 2. changing environment 3. greater difficulty to plan movement 4. increase demands on info processing system
Key points about closed tasks 1. fixed, habitual patterns 2. minimal variation 3. lower demand on info proc. system
Environmental constraints 1. Regulatory (shape movement itself) 2. Non-regulatory (affect performance)
Examples of regulatory features weight, size, shape of object; type of walking surface
Example of non-regulatory features background noise, distractions
Define closed predictable stable and predictable
define open predicatble variable and unpredicatble
Consideration for environmental predictability is the movement self paced or externally paced?
Stages of Movement 1. initial conditions 2. preparation 3. Initiation 4. Execution 5. Termination 6. Movement outcome
What are the initial conditions? state of condition and environmental condition
Parameters of initial conditions posture, ability to interact with envir., and envir. context
Preperation is the involvement of the _______ CNS
What are the three stages of perparation? 1. stimulus ID 2. response to selection 3. response programming
When does initiation begin? instant displacement of segments begin
Parameters of initiation? timing, direction and smoothnes
What is execution? actual segmental movement
parameters of execution 1. amplitude of movement 2. direction of movement 3. speed of movement 4. smoothness of movement
When is termination? instant motion ceases
parameters of termination timing, stability, accuracy
What is the movement outcome? Goal of movement was reached successfully
Key points of motor control 1. degress of freedom 2. open and closed loops 3. motor programs
degrees of freedom CNS organizes many individual muscles/joints to produce coordinated mov’t.
open and closed loops We use open (FF) and closed loop (FB) systems every day.
What are motor programs? Specific neural circuits (patterned motor responses) exist for many movements.
What is the examination? 1. How do we analyze tasks 
we want to teach patients? 2. What STAGE of movement is the patient having difficulty with?
Steps of task analysis 1. describe task 2. identify key attributes (task chara and envir factors) 3. scale attributes simple to complex
What does intervention seek to do? How do we retrain movement and function?
Steps of intervention 1. ID missing/abnormal components 2. ID impairments causing prob. 3. Practice missing parts 4. Practice entire movement 5. Change elements of task/env. and practice
Created by: 696592119



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