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What is anatomical neutral? Standing upright Legs together & knees straight Toes pointing straight forwards Arms by side Palms facing forwards
Describe saggital plane? Passing through the body front to back. Divides the body into left and right
What is frontal (formal) plane? Divides the body into front and back
What is the transverse (horizontal/axial) plane? Divides the body into top and bottom
What is anterior? Closer to the front
What is posterior? Closer to back
What is superior? Closer to the top
What is inferior? Closer to the bottom
What is medial? Closer to the midline
What is lateral? Further from the midline
What is proximal? Closer to the trunk
What is distal? Further from the trunk
What is superficial? Closer to the surface
Deep Further from the surface
What are the 4 basic types of tissue? 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscular 4. Nervous
What is epithelial tissue? What are the 2 types and it’s characteristics? Sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity. The two types are: 1.simple epithelium 2. Stratified epithelium Characteristics: - cells are closely packed - minimal matrix -basement membrane
Where do you find grandular epethelium? Surrounds glands within the body
Where do you find covering/lining epithelium? - Forms the outer layer of skin - Lines open cavities of digestive & respiratory systems - Covers the walls of organs of the closed ventral cavity.
What are the different types of simple epithelium and their function? 1. Squamous Allows passage of materials via filteration or diffusion. Secreted lubricating substance 2. Cuboidal Absorbs. Secreted enzymes and mucus 3. Columnar Secreted and absorbs
Where is squamous epithelium found? Air sacs of lung Lining of heart, blood vessels & lymphatic vessels
Where is cuboidal epithelium found? Ducts Kidney Tubules Glands
Where is columnar epithelium found? Ciliated tissue in bronchi, uterine tubes Smooth tissue in digestive tract and bladder
What is stratified epithelium? And explain the different types It means there are several layers of epithelium cells. Can be squamous, cuboidal or columnar. 1. Keratinised. Found in areas of skin where there isn’t hair Waterproof Protects 2. Transitional Lines urinary organs. Allows urinary organs to stret
Glandular tissue? Formed from specialised epithelial cells. Exocrine glands: An external gland that releases its secretions direction or through a duct on the outside. Endocrine glands: Secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
What are tissues held together by? -Extra cellular(interstitial) matrix -Basement membrane (a specialised form of matrix that is always in association with tissue)
What are connective tissue extracellular matrix made up of? 1. Ground substance: • Can be fluid, semi fluid, gelatinous or calcified. • supports cells & binds together. Provides medium for material exchange. • stores water 2. Fibres: • strengthens and supports connective tissues. • collagen fibres are s
What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
• most Abundant tissue of the body • widely separated cells • large amounts of matrix material • many different types
What are the different types of connective tissue? - loose connective tissue - dense connective tissue - blood (fluid matrix/ plasma with no fibres) - lymphatic fluid - cartilage - bone
What are fibroblasts? A type of connective tissue cell that produces collagen and elastic fibres
What is adipocytes? A type of connective tissue cell that occur singly and in groups
Differ types of white blood cells? • macrophages: engulf foreign matter & pathogens • leukocytes: migrate into infected tissue • mast cells: found in loose connective tissue. Produce heparin ( anticoagulant) and Histamine when cells are damaged by disease or injury.
Different types of loose connective tissue? 1. Aereolar connective tissue • Found in nearly every body tissue. Gives strength, elasticity and support. 2. Adipose tissue • Derives from fibroblasts and co-located with areolar tissue. Supports and protects 3. Reticular connective tissue • F
Different types of dense connective tissue? 1. Dense regular connective tissue Strong, poor blood supply. Ligaments and tendons 2. Dense irregular connective tissue High tensile strength, resists excessive stretching or distention. Dermis of skin and organ capsules. 3. Elastic connective tissue
What is nervous tissue. Makes up the central and peripheral nervous system. Responsible for control of the body and communication. Consists of: Brain Spinal cord Ganglia Sensory nerves Motor neurones
What is a nerve impulse/ action potential? The nerve impulse travels along the nerve due to the movement of ions across the nerve cell membrane
What is the myelin sheath? • Surrounds large axons and peripheral nerves •Myelin (fatty substance) found between layers of the plasma membrane from Schwann cells • Nodes of ranvier are the tiny gaps between schwann cells.
What is saltatory conduction? • Occurs in myelinated neurones, e.g. motor-neurons • Depolarisation passes along the myelin sheath to the next node • Allows to conduct impulses faster than non-myelinated nerves
Function of muscular tissue? 1.Motion 2.Maintenance of posture 3.Storing and moving substances 4.Heat production
Properties of muscle Excitability •Ability to respond to stimuli Contractility •Ability of muscle tissue to contract i.e. to shorten and thicken in response to a stimulus (i.e. action potential) Extensibility •Ability of muscle tissue to stretch when relaxed •This
Types of muscle Skeletal Cardiac Smooth
Describe skeletal muscle •striated / striped •attaches to and moves the skeleton, •under conscious (voluntary control) control
Describe cardiac muscle Found only in the heart •Striated appearance •Under involuntary control •Does not require an external stimulus to initiate muscle contraction
Describe smooth muscle •Does not have a striated appearance •Found anywhere where the body controls the contractions and relaxations automatically •e.g. lining the alimentary canal, ureters and bladder.
Created by: hifsah