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Psych AOS1

glossary definitions

Perceptual set is the predisposition, or 'readiness', to perceive something in accordance with what we expect it to be. Our expectations of what an object or event will be make us more likely to interpret the object or event in that predetermined way
Context refers to the setting or environment in which a perception is made. when organising and interpreting visual information, we take account of the setting and pay more attention to those aspects of the setting that are immediately relevant
Past (prior) experience refers to our personal experience throughout our lives. this includes everything we have learnt, both intentionally and unintentionally. experiences also predispose, or set us to perceive information in a particular way
Motivation refers to internal processes which activate behaviour that we direct towards achieving a particular goal, motives can be influenced by psychological or biological factors
Emotional State is how we are feeling, it can also influence the way in which we perceive visual information . Different emotions can set us to perceive information in a particular way which is consistent with the emotion being experienced
Culture refers to the way of life of a particular community or group that sets apart from other communities and groups. culture includes customs, traditions, beliefs, values, attitudes, rules, food and music
Taste receptors the sensory receptors that detect the chemical molecules that enable taste, located within the taste buds
Papillae are all the thousands of small bumps that you can see and feel on the surface of the tongue
Taste pore located on the surface of the tongue, open into the taste bud, connecting the surface of the tongue to the taste receptors within the taste buds
Tastant the dissolved chemical molecules that can be tasted. The hairs stimulate their connected taste receptor cells to pass signals on to sensory neurons which transmit the messages to the brain
Five tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and unami (savoury)
Taste perception seems to be the least critical of our senses, it is believed that taste evolved to protect us from eating things that are poisonous and to ensure we have an appetite for the calories and nutrients we need
Age the ability to taste may substances is already well developed at birth. premature infants show characteristic response to basic tastes, e.g they suck more in response to a sweet substance coated on their dummy and spit it out when it has a bitter taste
Genetics people vary in their ability to taste, one reason is that genetic difference makes us more or less sensitive to the chemical molecules in different foods, our genes can therefore influence how sensitive we are to bitterness, sweetness or any other taste
Perceptual set - foodpackaging/appearance we often taste what we expect to taste, a significant influence is our expectation of how a food 'should look'. The process often begins with our eyes, this is why food producers and retailers pay so much attention to how they package and present food.
Taste aversion
Culture most cultures have food practices involving the use of ingredients, techniques, and flavour principles when cooking. we are exposed to these cultural differences from birth and they are reflected in our perceptual judgements of what tastes good/bad
Perceptual distortion involves an inconsistency or 'mismatch', between a perceptual experience and physical reality
Visual illusion a consistent misinterpretation (distortion or mistake) of real sensory information
Muller-lyer illusion a visual illusion in which one of two lines of equal length, each of which has opposite shaped ends, is incorrectly perceived as being longer than the other
Biological perspective explanations from the biological perspective emphasise the role played by our eyes, brains and/or nervous system when we view the illusion
Psychological perspective explanations from a psychological perspective emphasise the role of learning and past experience, we cannot make sense of the illusion whenever we view it, even after the illusion is explained to us
Social perspective studies focus on the role of social factors, particularly cultural influences on the perception of the Muller-Lyer illusion, studies have also provided evidence for the role of learning and past experience in perceiving the illusion
Ames room illusion the Ames room is a room built in a distorted manner that produces differing visual illusions. An Ames room produces two illusions to the viewer, the first being that the room appears to be a normal rectangular room from a certain angle (seen by looking th
Flavour is a perceptual experience produced by a combination of taste and other sensations, a crucial component is smell
Colour intensity changing the intensity of a colour can exert a sometimes dramatic impact on our expectations, and hence on the taste and flavour experiences. e.g a brighter or richer coloured food item can seem to taste different to a blander coloured one, even when th
Texture is the property of food or beverage that is felt in the mouth and contributes to flavour along with taste, vision and other sensations
Synaesthesia is a perceptual experience in which stimulation of one sense produces additional unusual experiences in another sense
Perceptual set - flavour the flavour we experience is influenced by expectations based on preconceived ideas about how foods and drinks should taste. One of the most significant influences on flavour judgement is our expectation of how food should look (colour). We tend to link c
Created by: ebonydonald