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Surg Pharm Key Terms

Module 01

TermDefinition
Absorption Process by which a drug is taken into the body and moves from the site of administration into the blood
Adverse effect Undesired, potentially harmful side effects of a drug
Agonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and cause a particular response
Antagonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and prevent a response
Bioavailability The degree to which the drug molecule reaches the site of action to exert its effects
Biotechnology Refers to the concepts of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology
Biotransformation Process by which the liver changes the chemical composition of a drug in order to change lipid-soluble drug molecules to water-soluble molecules that can be more easily excreted
Bolus A drug that is given all at once
Contraindication Reasons against giving a particular drug
Distribution The process once a drug enters the bloodstream; circulatory system transports the drug throughout the body and drug molecules diffuse out of the bloodstream to the site of action
Duration Time between onset and disappearance of a drug's effects
Emulsion Medication contained in a mixture of water and oil bound together with an emulsifier (used to bind two substances that don't normally mix)
Enteral Taken into the GI tract (orally)
Excretion Process of eliminating medications from the body
Hypersensitivity Adverse effect resulting from previous exposure to the drug or a similar drug
Idiosyncratic effect Describes a reaction where the exact mechanism of an adverse drug effect is unknown
Indication Reason or purpose for giving a medication
Local effect To work at the site of application (i.e. ointments, steroid creams)
Onset Time between administration of a drug and the first appearances of its effects
Parenteral Taken by any route other than the GI tract
Pharmacodynamics How the action of drugs affect the body
Pharmacokinetics How the body processes drugs
Plasma protein binding Process by which drug molecules bind to proteins (albumins and globulins) contained in plasma
Reconstituted To mix a powder with a liquid to form a solution that can be administered by injection
Side effect A predictable, but unintended effect of a drug
Solubility Ability to be dissolved
Solution A mixture of drug particles (solute) fully dissolved in a liquid medium (solvent)
Suspension A form in which solid, undissolved particles float (suspend) in a liquid
Synergist A drug that enhances the effect of another drug
Systemic effect Working throughout the entire body (i.e. transdermal patches)
Topical Applied to the skin for absorption
Controlled substances Substances that are classified or "scheduled" for abuse potential
Narcotics Mood altering substances sold for non-medical purposes
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration; established to enforce the Controlled Substances Act
FDA Food and Drug Administration; regulates drugs to be manufactured, sold, and administered
The Joint Commission Evaluates and accredits health care organizations and programs in the United States
OTC Over-the-counter; does not require physician prescription
PDR Physician's Desk Reference; provides easy access to information on several thousand medications used in medical and surgical practice
USP-NF United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary; official medication list recognized by the U.S. government
Created by: wfaust