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Chapters 12-16

Sociology Exam #4

QuestionAnswer
family (Chapter 12) set of people related by blood, marriage or other agreed upon relationship, or adoption, who share primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society
nuclear family married couple and unmarried children living together serves as nucleus or core
extended family family in which relatives live in the same home as parents and children
monogamy form of marriage in which an individual has 1 partner
serial monogamy when a person has several spouses in his or her lifetime
polygamy when a person has several husbands and wives at the same time 5 countries in Africa practice this
Polygyny man married to more than one women (common)
polyandry woman married to more than one husband
kinship state of being related to others
bilateral descent both sides of person's family is equally important
patrilineal descent only father's relatives are important
matrilineal descent only the mother's relative are important
patriarchy males are expected to dominate in all family decision making
matriarchy women have greater authority than men
egalitarian family family in which spouses are equals
Friedrich Engels believed that family is the ultimate source of social inequality due to its roles in transfer of power, property, and privilege
Functionalist perspective on family (William F Ogburn) 6 functions/ roles of family reproduction protection socialization- social stability regulation of sexual behavior affection and companionship provision of social status
Conflict perspective on family family reflects inequality in wealth and power argued that family contributes to societal injustice denies women opp that are extended to men husbands exercise power and authority
Interactionist perspective on family micro level of family and other intimate relationships individuals interact with each other role of step parent
feminist perspective on family (Velma McBride Murray) interest in family as social institution women's work outside home is impacted dual income households in which wife earns higher income
endogamy specifies groups WITHIN which spouse must be found
exogamy requires mate selection OUTSIDE certain groups, usually family or certain kin
incest taboo social norm common to societies prohibiting sexual relationships between certain relationships
homogamy select mate with similar characteristics to own like marries like
lower class families likely to have 1 parent children have adult responsibilities women play significant role in family's economic support
Machismo (Mexican culture) sense of virility, personal worth, and pride in one's maleness
familism (Mexican culture) pride in extended family
4 factors complicate transition to adulthood -little anticipatory socialization for caregiver role -limited learning during preganancy -abrupt transition to parenthood -lack of clear guidelines for successful parenthood
adoption transfer of legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to new legal parent or parents
functionalist perspective on adoption gov has strong interest in encouraging adoption offers stable environment for children
interactionist perspective on adoption may require child to adjust to very different family environment and parental approach
single parent families only one parent present to care for children 84% are mothers
stepfamilies nature of blended families has social significance for adults and children
factors associated with divorce -more liberal divorce laws -fewer children -increase in family income -freater op for women
When did same sex marriage get passed 2015
cohabitation practice of living together as male-female couple without marrying
functionalists view on family leave is important as means of facilitating parent child interaction crucial to socialization
interactionist view on family leave policy impact on everyday relations at work and at home
conflict view on family view inherent class bias in family leave policy in U.S.
flexibility stigma devaluation of workers who seek or presumed to need flexible work arrangements
secularization (Chapter 13) religions influence on other social institutions
education process of socialization
religion ( Emile Durkeim) unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things
transmitting culture (functionalist) exposing young people to existing beliefs, norms, and values of their culture gov uses education to shape culture; some forcefully
promoting social and political integration (functionalist) common identity and social integration fostered by education contributes to societal stability and consensus
maintaining social control (Functionalist) schools teach students discipline, punctuality and responsibility direct and restrict students' aspirations
serving as an agent of change (functionalist) lifetime earnings= # of formal schooling formal schooling is also openness to new ideas, liberal and political viewpoints
hidden curriculum (Conflict) standards of behavior deemed proper and taught subtly
credentialism (conflict) increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field may reinforce social inequality
bestowal of status (conflict) education can distribute members among variations positions by sorting people in levels and courses of study
tracking (conflict) practice of placing student in certain curriculum groups based on test scores and other criteria
correspondence principle (conflict) promotes values expected of individuals in each social class
feminist view on education -sterotypes in textbooks -pressure on women to study traditional women's subject -unequal funding for athletics -bias in employment of teachers women increasingly continue schooling plays significant role in a nation's economic development
interactionist view on education teacher-expectancy effect/ impact of teacher expectations about a student on student's actual achievements
Max Weber's characteristics of bureaucracy -div of labor/teach particular age levels and specific subjects -hierarchy of authority/ each school sys responsible to a higher authority -written rules and regulations/ conform to rules and regulations -impersonality -employment based on tech qual
student subcultures complex and diverse high school cliques and social groups
4 student subcultures collegiate-having fun and socializing academic-intellectual concerns of facility and values knowledge vocational-career prospects and views college as advancement nonconformist-hostile to college environ. seeks ideas
homeschooling 1.7 million quality control on issue parents tend to have higher than average incomes and education
religion (Durkeim) unified systems of beliefs and practices norms and values of religious faith through substantive beliefs
sacred elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, fear
profane includes ordinary and commonplace
world religions (84 %) christanity-largest faith islam-second Judaism-forms historical foundation for Christianity and islam Hinduism-embraces number of gods and recarnation Buddhism-developed as reaction against Hinduism, uses meditation to overcome selfish cravings
manifest functions open and stated functions
latent functions unintended, covert, or hidden functions
Emile Durkheim viewed religion as an integrative force in human society seen in immigrant groups dysfunctional, contributing to tension and conflict
Protestant ethic followers of Protestant reformation on disciplined work ethic, thi-worldly concerns, and rational orientation for life
liberation theology use of church in political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination
Karl Marx (conflict) religion and social control opiate of oppressed people false consciousness among disadvantaged promotion of social stability only helps patterns of social inequal
feminist perspective on religion generally take subordinate role in religious governance play vital role as volunteers, staff, and education more likely than men to be affiliated with religion
components of religion religious beliefs-statements to which members of a religion adhere religious rituals-practices required or expected of members religious experience- feeling or perception of being in direct contact with ultimate reality/ born again
fundamentalism doctrinal conformity and literal interpretation of sacred texts
ecclesia Lg, religious org claiming to include most or all members of society islam in Saudi Arabia Buddhism in Thailand
denomination Lg, organized religion not officially linked w/state or gov
sects small religious group that broke away from some other religious org to renew orginal vision of faith
established sect outgrowth of a sect that remains isolated
New religious movement or cult small, secretive religious group that rep either new religion or major innovation of an existing faith
charter schools experimental schools developed and managed by individuals, groups of parents, or educational management 2.6 million enrolled in 42 different states
functionalist view on charter schools serve diverse student body
conflict view on charter schools not unionized and so not represent teachers' interests well
Economic System (Chapter 14) social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed and consumed shape other aspects of social order
political system social institution founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society's goals
industrial society society that depends on mechanization to produce its good and services capitalism socialism
capitalism economic system in which means of production are held largely in private hands
Laissez-faire businesses compete with minimal gov intervention
monopoly exists when a single firm controls the market conflict-not basic element of the economy free enterprise system
socialism (Karl Marx) means of production and distribution owned collectively rather than privately owned socialist countries all have ins
communism economic sys under which all prop is communally owned and no social distinctions are made
ideal types of economic systems socialism and capitalism
informal economy transfer of money, goods or services not reported to the gov difficult to measure functionalist contends and contributes to the rise of informal
power (max weber) ability to exercise one's will over others
sources of power in political systems force-actual or threatened influence-persuasion authority-power recognized by the people
ideal types of authority traditional-custom and accepted practice (king and queen) rational-legal/ made legitimate by law Charismatic-by leader's exceptional personal and emotional appeal
monarchy form of gov headed by a single member of a royal family
oligarchy form of gov in which a few individuals rule
dictatorship gov in which one person has nearly total power to mk and enforce laws ex: democracy and monarchy
totalitarianism involves virtually complete gov control and surveillance over all aspects of a society's social and political life ex: monarchies and oligarchies
democracy gov by the people
representative democracy certain individuals elected to speak for the people
aspects of political system taken for granted by bill of rights 2 major political parties secret ballot elected president distinct state and local gov
race and gender in politics inclusion of minority groups in gov has been slow female politicians enjoying more free electoral success
elite model society ruled by sm group of individuals who share common set of political and economic interests
Mills model (C. Wright Mills) believed economic power coordinate their maneuvers with military and political
power elite sm ruling elite of military, industrial, and gov leaders few members and operates as a self conscious global power elite ongoing
Domhoff's Model stresses roles played by elites of corp community and leaders of policy formation gov power elite still consists mainly or older white males
2 coalitions of Power elite -corp conservative -liberal-labor
pluralist model competing groups within community hv access to gov, so no single group can dominate make use of intensive case studies
Robert Dahl number of people in any important decisions was small
war conflict between org that possess trained combat forces equipped w/deadly weapons
3 sociological approaches on war -global view/how and why nations become engaged in military combat -nation-state view/ interaction of internal political, socioeconomic and cultural forces -micro view/ focuses on social impact on individuals and their groups
peace both absence of war and proactive effort to develop cooperative relations among nations
global peace index U.S. ranks 94 on list of 162 top is very peaceful and bottom is great civil unrest
terrorism use or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims
affirmative action positive efforts to recruit minority group members
color blind racism principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo
changing workforce constantly changing increasingly composed of women and racial and ethnic minorities 52% expected to be women more diverse workforce
deindustrialization systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity
downsizing reductions in a company's workforce as part of deindustrialization
sharing economy connecting owners of underused assets w/others willing to pay to use them lyft, uber, airbnb
precarious work employment that is poorly paid , and from worker's perspective insecure and unprotected
offshoring transferring work to foreign contractors
conflict theorists on offshoring this aspect of globalization furthers social inequalities
microfinancing (Muhummad Yunnis) lendinf sm sums of money to poor so they can work their way out of poverty women comprise 83 % microcredit
critics creation of small home based industries reduces demand for formal employment
health (Chapter 15) state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
functionalist perspective on health being sick/must be controlled so that not too many people are released from societal responsibilities
sick role societal expectations about attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill
gatekeepers physician's functions for the sick role
conflict perspective on health medicine serves as an agent of social control by retaining absolute jurisdiction over many health care procedures
medicalization of society (conflict) growing role of medicine as major institution of social control greatly expanded domain of expertise medicine retains jurisdiction over health
medical model difficult for common people to join the discussion and exert influence on decision making
inequities in health care (conflict) stress the workings of health care institutions poor areas tend to be underserved bc medical services concentrate on where people are wealthy
brain drain (conflict) immigration to U.S. of skilled workers, professionals, and techs
infant mortality rate number of deaths of infants under 1 yr old per 1000 live births
interactionist perspective on health examine roles played by health care professionals and pt micro level asserts pts can play an active role in pos or neg health
Howard Becker nature of provider-patient contact can reduce quality of care time looking at comp screens instead of face to face interaction
labeling theory (labeling perspective) attempts to explain why certain people are viewed one way while others engaged in some behavior are not definition of illness and health
social epidemiology study of distribution of disease, impairment and general health status epidemiologist have taken new role of tracking bioterrorism
morbidity rate rate of disease in pop/disease data is more useful
mortality rate incidence of death in a pop
social class of health lower classes have higher rates of mortality and disability poor are less able to afford quality medical care
conflict theorists on social class capitalist societies care more about maximizing profits than they do about the health and safety of industrial workers
race and ethnicity on health poor economic and environmental conditions manifested in high morbidity and mortality
howard Waitzkin suggests that racial tensions also contribute to the medical problems of blacks
curanderismo form of holistic health care and healing
gender on health men more likely to hv parasitic disease women tend to live longer bc lower rate of smoking, lower alcohol consumption, lower rate of employment in occupations, more likely to seek treatment
conflict perspective gender health women are vulnerable to medicalization of society
functionalist on physicians and patients physician and medical school professors serve a mentors
interactionist on physicians and patients students molded by medical school environment
alternatives to traditional health care complementary/used with conventional med holistic/health care practitioner considers physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual characteristics alternative/ non-mainstream practice used in place of conventional medicine
1946 hill-burton act first subsides for building and improving hospitals
1965 medicare and Medicaid established
1983 gov instituted price-control system
2010 ACA improved health insurance coverage for people of all ages
mental illness reserved for disorder of the brain that disrupts thinking, feeling, and ability to interact with others looked at as negative and suspicious
stigma (E Goffman) labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups
medical model mental illness rooted in biological causes that can be treated through medical intervention social and cultural factors contribute to mental illness
labeling theory on mental illness some behaviors that are viewed as mental illness may not be an illness
Thomas szasz believed that numerous personality disorders are not diseases but patterns of conduct labeled as disorders by sig others
Community Mental health centers Act (1963) increased gov intervention and provision of care
social factors that influence pop rates and trends fertility mortality migration
fertility a society's level of reproduction
demography components of pop size, composition territorial distribution
Thomas Malthus on population argued world's pop growing more rapidly than available food supply
Karl Marx on population linked overpopulation to unequal distribution of resources
neo-malthusians influenced by both malthus and marx in stressing birth control and sensible use of resources
cenus counting of a pop, primarily mechanism for collecting pop info
vital statistics census supplemented by this on births, dealths, marriages, divorc
elements of demography birthrate total fertility rate death rate life expectancy growth rate
demographic transition change from high birthrates and death rates to low
pretransition high birthrates and death rates with little pop growth
transition declining death rates with high to medium fertility, resulting in sig pop growth
posttransition low birthrates and death rates with little pop growth
population pyramid special type of bar chart that shows distribution of a pop b gender and age
baby boom most recent period in high fertility strong societal pressure on women to marry and become mothers
migration permanent movement of people w/purpose of changing place of residence , generally over sizable distance
internal migration migratory movements within societies residents of a country generally free to move from one locality to another
human ecology study concerned with interrelationships between people and their environment
world system analysis shows growing share of human and natural resources of developing countries redistributed to core industrialized nation
Allan Schnaiberg treadmill of production necessitates increasing demand for products, purchase of natural resources at min cost, and manufacturing cheaply and quickly
ecological modernization alignment of environmentally favorable practices w/economic self interest through constant adaptation and restructuring
macro level of ecological modernization reintegrating industrial waste back into the production process
micro level of ecological modernization reshaping individual lifestyles
environmental justice legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards
air pollution solution clean up power plants enforce or strengthen air quality standrads individual actions like driving less often or less electricity
climate change observable alteration of global atmosphere that affects natural weather patterns
global warming sig rise in earth's surface temps
social change (Chapter 16) significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values
Victoria Carty sociologist who believed that the ready availability of social media changed all that and caused protest movements to evolve
social movement organized collective activity to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society
functionalists on social movement contribute to formation of public union taking on an international dimension
Hebert Blumer recognized special importance of social movements defined as collective enterprise to establish a new order of life
relative deprivation conscious feeling of negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities
in addition to feeling relative deprivation you also need to... have a right to their goals cannot attain their goals through conventional means
resource mobilization ways a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence , access to the media, and workers
false consciousness (marx) attitudes that do not reflect workers' objective position
new social movement beginning of 1960s organized collective activity that addresses values and social identities as well as improvements in quality of life
macro level approach of new social movement members show little inclination to accept established authority
micro level approach of new social movement environmental movement with a global focus
Computer mediated communication (CMC) interaction through 2 or more networked devices
evolutionary theory (Darwin) views society as moving in a definite direction
Auguste Comte on evolutionary theory human societies moving forward in their making from mythology to scientific method
Emile Durkeim on evolutionary theory society progresses from simple to more complex social org
equilibrium model as change occur in one part of society, adjustments must be made in other parts
Talcott Parsons (functionalist) 4 process of social change differentiation adaptive upgrading inclusion value generalization
conflict perspective on social change karl marx- change is necessary to correct social injustice/inequal ralf Dahrendorf/ functionalist and conflict compatible
Resistance to social change (Thorstein Veblan) economic factors cultural factors reluctance to use or fear of technology
vested interests (Veblan) people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change
culture lag period of maladjustment when non-material culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
technology cultural info about ways in which material resources of environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires
Luddites (post industrial) resisted industrial revolution
neo-Luddites who are wary of tech innovations
Urban Amish who resist tech devices
Randall Collins soviet expansionism resulted in an overextension of resources in 1980
Maureen Hallinan need to move beyond restrictive models of social change
social change in Dubai constitutional monarchy no democratic utopia no contested elections cheap electricity free land and water free healthcare
functionalist view on internet generally positive view
conflict theorist on internet stress most powerful groups will use tech to violate privacy of less powerful
transnational immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships that link their societies of origin with the societies of settlement
Created by: vtlove116