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Chapters 7-11

Sociology Exam #3

TermDefinition
deviance behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society -violation of group norms -subject to social definition within a particular society
stigma (Erving Goffman) labels society uses to devalue members of a certain social group -affects those with mental illness
deviance and technology innovations can redefine social interactions online communication offers a high degree
social control techniques and strategies employed for preventing deviant human behavior parents peer groups-informal norms or dress codes colleges-establish standards bureaucratic org- formal system of rules government
sanctions penalties or rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
Functionalist on social control people must respect social norms for a group or society to survive
conflict theorists on social control successful functioning of society made possible by adherence to social norms benefits the powerful
The Milgram experiment (Stanley Milgram) experimenter instructed people to administer painful shocks
conformity going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior
obedience compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
informal social control used casually to enforce norms -smiles, laughter, raised eyebrows, ridicule
formal social control carried out by authorized agents -encouraging people to violate social norms
law governmental social norm
control theory connection to members of society leads people to systematically conform to society's norm
Functionalist perspective on deviance Durkheim legacy punishments established within a culture help define acceptable behavior and contribute to stability
anomie (functionalist) loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
Merton's theory of Deviance (functionalist) anomie theory of deviance contains 5 basic forms of adaptation conformity retreatism innovation ritualism rebellion
conformist (non-deviant) accepts both the goals of society and the use of acceptable means
retreatist withdraws from both goals of society and use of acceptable means
innovator accepts goals of society but pursues them with means considered improper
ritualist abandons the goals, but becomes compulsively committed to the institutional means
rebel feels alienated from both the goals of society and the dominant means of achieving them
cultural transmission (interactionist) people learn how to behave, whether properly or improperly
differential association (interactionist) process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules
social disorganixation theory (interactionist) crime and deviance caused by absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions
Labeling theory- William Chambliss (labeling perspective) attempts to explain why some people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not
societal-reaction approach response to an act, not the behavior determines deviance
social constructionist perspective deviance a product of culture we live in
conflict perspective on deviance (Richard Quinney) people with power protect their own interests
differential justice difference in way social control is exercised over different groups
Feminist perspective on deviance approaches deviance and crime developed with only men in mind women as victims and perpetrators
crime violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalities
victimless crime willing exchange among adults of widely desired but illegal goods and services
professional crime person who pursues crime as a day to day occupation
organized crime work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities
white collar crime illegal acts committed in the course of business activities
cyber crime illegal activity conducted through use of a computer hardware or software
corporate crime any act by corporations that is punishable
hate crimes offender is motivated by victim's race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, or sexual orientation
transnational crime crime that occurs across multiple national borders
social inequality situation in which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
stratification structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society
4 general systems of stratification slavery-individuals owned by other people (2000 passed act) castes-hereditary ranks usually religiously dictated (varnas) estates-or feudalism: peasants worked land leased to them social classes-social ranking
ascribed status social position assigned to a person by society
achieved status social position that a person attains in his or her own efforts
class system (Daniel Rossides) social ranking based primarily on economic position
upper and lower class upper class- 1-2% /great wealth and power lower class-20-25%/lack wealth and income
middle class upper middle-10-15%/professionals lower middle-30-35%/less affkuent
working class 40-45%/hold regular jobs
Karl Marx stressed significance of class for society
capitalism (karl Marx) economic system in which means of production held largely in private hands
Bourgeoisie capitalist class, owners of means of production
proletarist working class
class consciousness awareness of common vested interests
false consciousness attitude that doesn't accurately reflect their objective
class (max weber) group of people who have similar level of wealth and income
status group (max weber) people who have the same prestige or lifestyle
power (max weber) ability to exercise one's will over others
conspicuous consumption-Thorstein Veblen (interactionist) purchasing goods not to survive but to flaunt superior wealth and social standing
functionalist perspective on stratification (kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore) social inequality necessary so people will be motivated to fill functionally important positions
conflict perspective on stratification (Ralf Dahrendorf) leads to instability and social change humans tend to conflict over scarce resources
dominant ideology (conflict) set of cultural beliefs and practices
Lenski's Viwepoint advance tech-more production resource expands-inequality allocation of surplus-social inequality
objective method assigns individuals to classes on occupation, education, income, and place of residence
prestige respect and admiration an occupation holds in society
esteem reputation a specific person has earned within an occupation
socioeconomic status measure of social class based on income, education, and occup
Income and wealth income distributed unevenly wealth more unevenly distributed than income
absolute poverty min. level of subsistence that no family should live below
relative poverty floating standard people at bottom of society judged as being disadvantaged
feminization of poverty 1959- 26% poor were female householders 2014-54% increase in families with women as single heads of household
underclass long term poor who lack training and skills
Gans (Herbert Gans) poverty and the poor satisfy positive functions for many non -poor groups
Max Weber saw class as closely related to people's life chances
life chances people's opportunities to provide themselves with a better life
social mobility movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
open system position of each individual influenced by the person's achieved status
closed system allows little or no possibility of moving up
horizontal mobility same range of prestige
vertical mobility movement from one position to another in a different rank
intergenerational mobility changes in children's position relative to their parents
intragenerational mobility social position changes within a person's adult life
the global divide inequality is a significant determinant of human behavior divides in global wealth emerge
stratification in the world system legacy of colonialism poverty multinational corp modernization
colonialism foreign power maintains political, social, economic, and cultural domination for an extended period of time
neocolonialism continued dependence on more industrialized nations for managerial and technical expertise by former colonies
world system analysis (Immanuel Wallerstein) interdependent global economy rests on unequal economic and political relationships core semiperiphery periphery
dependency theory even though countries make economic advances, still weak
globalization worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trades and exchanges
UN Millennium development goals asked industrial nations to set aside 0.51% of gross national income for developing nations to target 8 areas poverty education gender equality child mortality maternal health disease the environment global partnership
multinational corp commercial org headquartered in one county but doing business throughout the world
functionalist perspective on multinational corps jobs and industry max advantage of technology while reducing costs make nations more interdependent
conflict perspective of multinational corps climate for environment: repressive antilabor laws neg social impact on workers pool of cheap labor
modernization process by which peripheral nations move from traditional to developed societies
modernization theory (functionalist) modernization and development will gradually improve lives of people in developing nations
conflict perspective on modernization contributes to neocolonialism
mobility in industrial nations influenced by structural factors immigration continues to be significant growth in mobility does not necessarily bring growth in equality
gender differences in mobility sex discrimination female infanticide women's vital role in food production deteriorates
corporate welfare tax breaks, bailouts, direct payments, and grants federal bailouts given to distressed financial institutions
racial group group set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance
ethnic groups group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
minority groups subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their lives
properties of minority groups unequal treatment distinguishing cultural characteristics involuntary membership solidarity in-group marriage
racial group refers to minorities
social construction of race society labels those differences people consider important, while ignoring other characteristics
racial formation sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created
ethnicity group set apart from others because of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
prejudice negative attitude toward an entire category of people
ethnocentrism tendency to assume one's culture and way of life is superior to others
racism belief that one race is supreme and others inferior
sterotypes unreliable generalizations about all members of a group
color blind racism use of principle of race neutrality to defend racially unequal status quo
discrimination denial of opportunities and equal rights to people
glass ceiling invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, and ethnicity
white privilege (observation by Dubois) rights or immunities granted to people as a benefit or favor simply because they are white
redlining pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods
institutional discrimination denial of opp and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from normal op of society
affirmative action positive efforts to recruit minority members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opps
functionalist perspective on race and ethnicity Manning Nash Moral justification for maintaining unequal society moral justification for maintaining unequal society discouraging subordinate groups from questioning their status major social change would bring greater poverty to minority
Arnold rose 4 dysfunctions associated with racism society that practices discrimination fail to use resources aggravates social problems society must invest time and money racial prejudice undercuts goodwill
conflict perspective on race and ethnicity exploitation theory- racism keeps minorities in low paying jobs and supplies dominant group with cheap labor
racial profiling (labeling perspective) any arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than behaviors
contact hypothesis (interactionist) interracial contact between people of equal status in cooperative circumstances
genocide deliberate, systematic killing of entire people or nation
expulsion of people another extreme means of acting out racial or ethnic prejudice
secession failure to resolve ethnic or racial conflict results in drawing formal boundaries between groups
segregation physical separation of 2 groups of people in terms of residence
apartheid republic of south Africa severely restricted the movement of blacks and non-whites
amalgamation happens when majority group and minority group combine to form a new group, "melting pot"
assimilation process through which a person forsakes his or her cultural tradition to become part of a different culture
pluralism based on mutual respect among various groups in a society for one another's cultures
black power (African americans) rejected assimilation into white middle-class society
Asian americans one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population
issei first generation of Japanese immigrants
latinos largest minority in the U.S. census bureau data says that latino pop outnumbers African American pop
anti-semitism anti jewish prejudice
symbolic ethnicity emphasis on concerns such as ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ties to one's ethnic heritage
refugee people granted the right to enter the country while still residing abroad
asylees foreigners who have already entered the country and seek protection from persecution
gender roles expectations regarding proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
homophobia fear of and prejudice against homosexuality
gender stratification requires individual socialization into traditional gender roles within family promotion and support of traditional gender roles by other social institutions
gender identity how people see themselves, as male or female or something else
sexual identity self awareness of being romantically or sexually attracted to a defined group of people
expressiveness (functionalist) maintenance of harmony and internal emotional affairs of family
instrumentality (functionalist) emphasis on tasks, focus on more distant goals, and concern for external relationship between one's family and social institutions
engels (feminist) women's subjugation coincided with rise of private property
matrix of domination convergence of social forces that contribute to subordinate status of poor, non white women
interactionist on gender study gender stratification on a micro level of everyday behavior reinforcing traditional masculine and feminine actions
conflict on gender relationships between males and females are unequal reflection of subjugation of one group by another men's work valued and women is devalued
sexism ideology that one sex is superior to the other
institutional discrimination denial of opps and equal rights as result of normal operations of society
status of women worldwide suffer from second class status women not responding passively
glass ceiling invisible barrier that blocks promotion of a qualified individual because of gender, race, or ethnicity
glass escalator advantage men experience in occupations dominated by women major pay gap
second shift (Arlie Hochschild) work outside home followed by child care and housework
feminism belief in social, economic, and political equality for women
Created by: vtlove116