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AICP-Theory History

Planning History - Preparing for a Profession

Planned Communities: Who laid out the City of Philadelphia in a grid pattern with five public squares to serve the populace in his “holy experiment”? Year? William Penn 1682
Landmark Laws & Economic Development: What ordinance is known as the largest single act of national planning in our history and the most significant in terms of continuing impact on the body politic? Ordinance of 1785
Landmark Laws & Economic Development: What was the Ordinance of 1785 and who is related to the ordinance? Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest. Daniel Elazar.
Economic Development & Landmark Publication: Who wrote a document that argues for protective tariffs for manufacturing industry as a means of promoting industrial development in the young republic? Name of Document and Year? Alexander Hamilton. Report on Manufactures. 1791.
Economic Development: Who spoke before Congress proposing a plan called the American System? What was the American System? Year of proposed plan? Henry Clay. American System: a plan to allocate federal funds to promote the development of the national economy by combining tariffs with internal improvements (roads, canals, and other waterways). 1818.
Economic Development & Regional Planning: What structure was completed in 1825 and the importance? The Erie Canal which is an artificial waterway connected the northeastern states with the newly settled areas of what was then the West, facilitating the economic development of both regions.
Economic Development: Where did the National Road begin and terminated? What was the years of construction? What was the Importance? Began in Cumberland Maryland 1811. Terminated in Vandalia Illinois 1825. Opened the Ohio Valley to settlers.
Housing: The first "Model Tenement" was built when and where? 1839. Manhattan.
Landmark Laws, Economic Devel., Housing: What act opened the lands of the Public Domain to settlers for a nominal fee and five years of residence? Year? Homestead Act. 1862.
Economic Development & Landmark Laws: What year was the Morrill Act adopted and what is the importance of the Act? 1862. Congress authorizes land grants from the public Domain to the states. Proceeds from the sale were to be used to found colleges offering instruction in agriculture, engineering, and other practical arts.
Housing: Who mounts a campaign to raise housing and sanitary standards? What year did the campaign occur? New York Council of Hygiene of the Citizens Association. 1864.
Planned Communities: What was the importance of planning Riverside Illinois in 1868? Who, with Calvert, planned Riverside? Riverside was a suburban community that stressed the rural amenities as opposed to urban amenities. Fredrick Law Olmsted.
Economic Development: What two railroads meet at Promontory Point, Utah to complete the first transcontinental railroad? What was the full date of completion? Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads. May 10, 1869.
Conservation & Environment, Regional Planning, Economic Devel., Landmark Law, & Publication: What document was published which proposed a regional plan that would both foster settlement of the arid west and conserve scarce water resources? Author & Year? 1878. John Wesley Powell's Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States.
Landmark Publication: What was the argument Henry George presented in his book Progress and Poverty? Publishing Year? 1879. Diminish extremes of national wealth and poverty by means of a single tax on land that would capture the "unearned increment" of national development for public uses.
Housing: What was the form of multifamily housing widely built in New York until the end of the 1800's and notorious for the poor living conditions it imposed on its denizens (lack of light, air, space)? Year of debut? Dumbbell Tenement (because of shape) in 1879.
Economic Development and Conservation & Environment: What science agency was created by an act of Congress to survey and classify all Public Domain lands? When was it established? U.S. Geologic Survey in 1879.
Planned Communities: Who built a model industrial town in Pullman, Illinois? When did construction occur? George Pullman from 1880-84.
Landmark Laws: What case did the US Supreme Court ruled that the courts have the duty to strike down local laws that do not have a real or substantial relation to the police power: to protect the health, safety, welfare, and morals of the community? Date? Mugler v. Kansas in 1887.
Landmark Publication and Housing: What was the importance of Jacob Riis' published document "How the Other Half Lives" in 1890? It was a powerful stimulus to housing and neighborhood reform.
Conservation & Environment and Landmark Laws: What Act gave the President power to create forest preserves by proclamation? When? General Land Law Revision Act in 1891.
Conservation & Environment: In what year did John Muir founded an organization to promote the protection and preservation of the natural environment? What was the name of the organization? 1892. Sierra Club.
History of the Planning Profession: What was the importance of the 1893's World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago? Commemorated the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World which was the source of the City Beautiful Movement and of the urban planning profession.
Landmark Laws, Conservation & Environment: What was the 1st significant legal case concerning historic preservation in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the acquisition of the national battlefield at Gettysburg served a valid public purpose? Year? United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Co. in 1896.
Landmark Laws, Conservation & Environment: What Act Authorized some control by the Secretary of the Interior over the use and occupancy of the forest preserves? Year? Forest Management Act of 1897.
Landmark Publication & Planned Communities: Who wrote a document that was a source of the Garden City Movement? Year and Name of Original Document? Ebenezer Howard. 1898 "Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform"
What was the reissue name and date of Ebenezer Howards's 1898 publication "Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform"? Garden Cities of Tomorrow in 1902.
Conservation & Environment: Who became the Chief Forester of the United States in the Department of Agriculture in which he publicizes the cause of forest conservation? What year did he become Chief Forester? Gifford Pinchot in 1898
Created by: ChelseaMyers