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Sociology Exam #2

Chapters 3-6

Culture totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior includes ideas, values, customs
society the largest form of human group
culture industry worldwide media industry that standardizes goods and services demanded by consumers
Theodor Adorno philosopher: primary effect is to limit people's choices
cultural universals certain common practices and beliefs that all societies have developed adaptations
George Murdock Anthropologist that compiled a list of cultural universals but expressed differently from culture to culture
ethnocentrism tendency to assume that ones own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to others underdeveloped, backward, primitive world is dramatically influenced by the society we were raised
cultural relativism viewing people's behaviors from the perspective of their own culture ex: child marriage
sociobiology systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior founded on Darwin's theory of evolution
Language major element of culture, abstract system of word meanings and symbols important of cultural capital day to day exchanges both written and spoken
sapir-whorf hypothesis hypothesis that language is culturally determined and shape our interpretation of reality
non verbal communication use of gestures, facial expressions, and visual images to communicate
Norms and values all societies have ways to encourage and enforce appropriate behavior and discourage and punish inappropriate behavior
norms established standard of behavior maintained by society ex: contemporary society is heterosexuality
formal norms generally written, specify strict punishment for violators law
informal norms generally understood but not precisely recorded
mores norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society
folkways norms governing everyday behavior
sanctions penalties and rewards for conducting concerning a social norm
positive sanctions (formal norm) pay raises, medals, words of gratitude
negative sanctions (formal norm) fines, threats, imprisonment, stares of contempt
positive informal norm smile, compliment, and cheers
negative informal norm frown, humiliation, and bullying
cultural values collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper influence of behavior, evaluating actions of others
culture war polarization of society over controversial cultural elements
functionalist perspective on culture social stability requires a consensus and the support of society members
dominant ideology set of cultural beliefs and practices that help maintain powerful interests as social, economic, and political
conflict perspective on culture sominant ideology has major social significance
subculture segment of society that shares distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differ from larger society
argot a specialized language that distinguishes a subculture from the wider society
counterculture subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture thrive among the young
culture shock feeling disorientation of uncertainty, being out of place or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture
innovation process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
discovery making known or sharing existence of an aspect of reality
invention result when existing cultural items are combined into form that did not exist before
diffusion process by which cultural items spreads from group to group or society or society
technology cultural info about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy needs and desires
William F. Ogburn made distinction between elements of material and non material culture
material culture physical or tech aspects of daily lives
nonmaterial culture ways of using material objects, customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of com
culture lag period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions
bilingualism use of 2 or more languages in a particular setting us demanded conformity to a single language
role of solcialization interaction of heredity and environment (nature and nurture) shapes human development and influences socialization process
socialization lifelong process in which people learn attitudes, values, and behaviors
personality person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior
extreme isolation example of experiment of isabelle
extreme neglect example of Romanian Orphans
primate studies social attachments develop from need for warmth, comfort, and intimacy
Minnesota twins twins have similar intelligence test scores when reared apart in similar social settings but different in different settings
self distinct identity that sets us apart from others
looking-glass self the self is product of social interactions with other people
Stages of self (George Herbert Mead) Preparatory stage play stage games stage
preparatory stage children imitate people around them
play stage develop skill in communicating through symbols, awareness of social relationships, role taking
game stage at 8 or 9, consider several actual tasks and relationships simultaneously
Mead theory of self self begins as privileged person matures, self changes and begins to reflect significant others
significant others individuals most important in development of self
Erving Goffman impression management -individual learns to slant presentation of self and face work-a need to maintain proper image of self
dramaturgical approach people are seen as theatrical performers
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) self is a social product natural impulsive instincts in constant conflict personality influenced by others self has components that work opposite to each other
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) emphasized stages through which human beings progress as self develops
cognitive theory of development 4 stages in development of children's thought processes sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal
gender roles expectations regarding proper behavior, attitudes, and activities
school teaches values and customs of larger society reinforce divisive aspects of society
peer group assume role of Mead's significant others gender differences are noteworthy among adolescents
mass media and tech media innovations important of socialization concerns of teen use of internet use of technology not always negative new com tech in developing countries
workplace learning to behave appropriately within occupational setting
religion and the state gov and organized religion impact life course by reinstituting rites of passages
rite of passage means of dramatizing and validating changes in status
life course approach looking closely at social factors that influence people throughout life
anticipation socialization person rehearses future occupations and social relationships
resocialization discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones during transitions in one's life
total institution regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority
degradation ceremony ritual in which an individual is stripped of its own properties, becomes secondary, and rather invisible
mid-life crisis stage in which men and women realize they have not achieved basic goals and ambitions
sandwich generation adults who simultaneously try to meet needs of their parents and their children
phases of retirement preretirement near phase honeymoon phase disenchantment phase reorientation phase stability phase termination phase
Naturally Occurring Retirement communities (NORC) when older people congregate emerge as singles and young couples move out and older people move in residents at some communities threatened by gentrification
elements of social structure Statuses, social roles, groups, social networks, social institutions
status full range of socially defined positions within a large groupor society person can hold more than 1 at a time
ascribed status status assigned without regard for unique talents or characteristics
achieved status status one earns through one's own efforts
master status status that dominates and determines a person's general position in society
social roles set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status
role conflict incompatible expectations arise from 2 or more social positions
role strain difficulties that arise when same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations
role exit process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self identity in order to establish a new role and identity
group any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations
primary group small group characterized by intimate, face to face association
secondary group usually large, formal, impersonal groups with little social intimacy or mutual understanding
in group people feel they belong
out group people feel they don't belong
reference group any group or individual use as standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior
coalitions temp or permanent alliance geared toward common goal
social network series of social relationships that link a person directly to others
social institution organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
functional perspective of social institutions replacing personnel teaching new recruits producing and distributing goods and service preserving order providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
conflict perspective of social institutions help maintain privileges of most powerful individuals and groups education have inherently conservative natures operate in gendered and racist environment
interactionist perspective of social institutions affect everyday behavior conditioned by roles and statuses we accept
formal organizations groups designed for special purpose and structured for max efficiency
bureaucracy component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
ideal type construct or model for evaluating specific cases of bureaucracy
characteristic of Bureaucracy division of laber hierarchy of authority written rules and regulations impersonality employment based on technical qualifications
alienation condition of estrangement or dissociation from the surrounding society
trained incapacity workers become specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems
goal displacement overzealous conformity to official regulations of a bureaucracy
Peter principle (peter and hull 1969) every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of competence
division of labor produces efficiency in a large scale corp produces trained incapacity and a narrow organizational perspective
hierarchy of authority clarifies who is in command
written rules and regulations let workers know what is expected of them
impersonality reduces bias
employment based on technical qualifications discourages favoritism and reduces petty rivalry
bureaucratization process by which group, org, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic
iron law of oligarchy even a democratic organization eventually develops into a bureaucracy ruled by a few
classical theory or scientific management workers motivated almost entirely by economic rewards
human relations approach role of people, communication, and participation
mechanical solidarity collective consciousness that emphasizes group solidarity
organic solidarity collective consciousness resting on need society's members have for one another
Gemeinschaft (rural life) small community in
gesellschaft (urban life) large community in which people are strangers and feel little in common
sociocultural evolution human societies undergo process of change characterized by dominant pattern
preindustrial societies hunting and gathering society horticultural society agrarian society
hunting and gathering society rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available
horticultural society people plant seeds and crops
agrarian society primarily engaged in production of food
industrial societies depends on mechanization to produce its good and services
postindustrial society economic system engaged primarily in processing and control of info
postmodern society technologically sophisticated society preoccupied with consumer goods and media images
reasons for ongoing decline in labor union changes in types of industries growth in part time jobs the legal system globalization employer offensives
mass media media that embrace print and electronic means of communication to carry messages to widespread audiences
cultural convergence flow of content across multiple media
conferral of status media single out one from thousands of other similarly placed issues or people
hyperconsumerism practice of buying more than we need or want, often more than we can afford
narcotizing dysfunction phenomenon in which media provide such massive amounts of info that audience becomes numb
conflict perspective of mass media how media reflect and exacerbate divisions of society and world
gatekeeping how material must travel through a series of checkpoints before reaching the public
dominant ideology set of cultural beliefs and practices that help maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
sterotype unreliable generalization about members of a group that do not recognize individual differences
hyper local media reporting that is highly local
digital divide low income groups that have less access to latest tech essential to economic progress
feminist view of mass media mass media sterotype and misrepresent social reality
social capital collective benefit of social networks, built on reciprocal trust
egocasting personal management of media exposure to avoid messages one does not like
opinion leader someone who, day to day personal contacts and communication, influences opinions and decision of others
big data rapid collection and analysis of enormous amounts of info by super computers
culture lag material culture (tech) changing faster than non material
Created by: vtlove116
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