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Psych Ch. 2

TermDefinition
theory an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena
determinism the doctrine that all events are determined by specific casual factors that are potentially knowable
hypothesis a tentative and testable statement about the relationship between causes and consequences
the scientific method a general set of procedures that allows the unbiased and most controlled way to gather and interpret data
public verifiability other reasearchers must have the oppurtunity to inspect, criticize, replicate, or disprove the data and methods
peer review when a manuscript is sent to other experts to be examined and analyzed.
observer bias error due to personal motives and expectations of viewer
standardization a set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test in as similar of a way as possible
operational definition a definition of a variable or condition in terms of the specific operation or procedure used to determine its presence
variable a factor that varies in amount and kind
independant variable the variable that a researcher manipulates in an experiment
dependant variable a variable that is measured to conclude the impact of the independant variable
experimental methods manipulation on independant variables to determine the effect on the dependant variable
confounding variable a stimulus other than the variable an experimenter explicitly introduces into a research setting that affects a participants behavior
expectancy effect result that occurs when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to participants the kind of behavior he or she expects to find, thereby creating that expected reaction
placebo effect a change in behavior in the absence of an experimental manipulation
control procedures consistent procedure for giving instructions, scoring responses, and holding all other variables constant except those being systimatically varied
correlational method research methodology that determines to what extent two variables, traits, or attributes are related
corelation coefficient a statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables
within-subjects design a reasearch design that uses each participant as his or her own control; for example, the behavior of an experimental participant before recieving treatment might be compared to his or her behavior after recieving treatment
random sampling ensures that all members of a population have an equal chance of being a part of the experiment
double-blind control an experimental technique in which biased expectations of experimenters are eliminated by keeping both participants and experimental assistants unaware of which participants have recieved treatment
placebo control an experimental condition in which treatment is not administered; used in cases where a placebo might occur
between-subjects design a research design in which different groups of participants are randomly assigned to experimental conditions or control conditions
random assignment a procedure where participants have equal chance to be assigned to any experimental condition
experimental group a group in experiment where they are exposed to the manipulation of independant variable
control group a group in experiment not exposed to manipulation of independant variable
population the entire set of individuals where generalizations can be made based on an experimental sample
sample a small group of individuals from a population
representative sample a subset of population which reflects the population as a whole
Reliability the consistency or dependability of behavioral data resulting from psychological testing or experimental research
Validity the extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure
Self-report measures a self-behavior that is identified and reported through a participants own observations
rapport a positive social relationship with the respondant that encourages trust and the sharing of personal information
Behavioral measures Overt actions or reactions that is observed and recorded, exclusive of self reported behavior
naturalistic observation a reasearch technique in which unontrusive observations are made of behaviors that occur in natural enviroments
case study intensive observation of a particular individual or small group of individuals
informed consent the proces through which individuals are informed about experimental procedures, risks, and benifits before they provide formal consent to become research participants.
debriefing a procedure conducted at the end of an expeiment in which the researcher provides the participant with as much information about the study as possible and makes sure the participant feels comfortable
Created by: HuseinRaja