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Lumbar/Sacral Spine


L1: Muscle Weakness None
L1: Affected Reflex None
L1: Paresthesias Groin; After holding posture, which causes pain
L2: Dermatome Back, front of thigh to knee
L2: Muscle Weakness Psoas, hip adductors
L2: Affected Reflex None
L2: Paresthesias Occasionally anterior thigh
L3: Dermatome Back, upper buttock, anterior thigh and knee, medial lower leg
L3: Muscle Weakness Psoas, quadriceps, thigh atrophy
L3: Affected Reflex Knee jerk sluggish, PKB positive, pain on full SLR
L3: Paresthesias Medial knee, anterior lower leg
L4: Dermatome Medial buttock, lateral thigh, medial leg, dorsum of foot, big toe.
L4: Muscle Weakness Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis
L4: Affected Reflex SLR limited, neck flexion pain, weak or absent knee jerk, side flexion limited
L4: Paresthesias Medial aspect of calf and ankle
L5: Dermatome Buttock, posterior and lateral thigh, lateral aspect of leg, dorsum of foot, medial half of sole, and toes 1-3
L5: Muscle Weakness Extensor hallucis, peroneals, gluteus medius, dorsiflexors, hamstrings and calf atrophy
L5: Affected Reflex SLR limited one side, neck flexion painful, ankle decreased, crossed-leg raising pain
L5: Paresthesias Lateral aspect of leg, medial 3 toes
S1: Dermatome Lateral and plantar aspect of foot
S1: Muscle Weakness Calf and hamstrings, wasting of gluteals, peroneals, plantar flexors
S1: Affected Reflex SLR limited, Achilles reflex weak or absent
S1: Paresthesias Lateral 2 toes, lateral foot, lateral leg to knee, plantar aspect of foot.
S2: Dermatome Buttock, thigh, and posterior leg
S2: Muscle Weakness Same as S1 excepts peroneals
S2: Affected Reflex Same as S1
S2: Paresthesias Lateral leg, knee, and heal
S3: Dermatome Groin, posteromedial thigh to knee
S3: Muscle Weakness None
S3: Affected Reflex None
S3: Paresthesias None
S4: Dermatome Perineum, genitals, lower sacrum
S4: Muscle Weakness Bladder, Rectum
S4: Affected Reflex None
S4: Paresthesias Saddle area, genitals, anus, impotence, massive posterior, herniation
L1: Dermatome Back, over trochanter and groin
Created by: Dr.Grandolph



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