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S.S. 5/25/18

What are the causes of air pollution in Mexico City? Overcrowding Industrialization Vehicle emissions Location (valley between two mountain ranges)
What are the effects of deforestation in the Amazon Basin? Loss of habitat for many species Contributes to climate change (loss of carbon sink) Soil erosion Soil depletion
What were the peak years of the Mayans? 250 – 950 CE
Where were the Mayans located? Central America
What were the Maya's main achievements? System of writing using hieroglyphics, developed 365-day calendar, use of digit zero, large temples
What happened to the Mayans? Mysteriously abandoned cities and mostly disappeared
What were the peak years of the Aztecs? 1345-1521
Where were the Aztecs located? Valley of Mexico
What were the Aztecs known for? Human sacrifices to please the gods, canals and floating gardens to adapt to living on island, large temples
What happened to the Aztecs? Spanish conquest and disease (small pox)
What were the peak years of the Incas? 1425-1531
Where were the Incas located? West coast of South America – Andes Mountains
How did the Incas adapt to life in the Andes Mountains? Terraced farming, aqueducts and extensive road system
What happened to the Incas? Spanish conquest and disease (small pox)
Maize corn
Hieroglyphics system of writing using signs and symbols
Tribute like a tax that can be paid with labor, gold/silver, crops or human lives
Tenochtitlan capital of Aztec empire, today it is Mexico City
Machu Picchu famous Incan city in the Andes Mountains in Peru
Aqueduct pipes or channels designed to bring water from a distant source
Conquistador Spanish conqueror
Criollo/Creole Spanish people born in the colonies
Peninsulare Spanish-born nobles living in colonies
Hacienda plantation owned by Spaniards or Catholic Church
Mestizo people of mixed Spanish and Native American descent
Treaty agreement between two nations
Line of Demarcation imaginary line determining what land belonged to Portugal (Brazil) or Spain (rest of Central and South America)
Who was Hernan Cortes? Spanish conquistador Conquered Aztecs, laid siege to Tenochtitlan and built Mexico City on top of the ruins First Governor General of New Spain
Who was Francisco Pizarro? Spanish conquistador Conquered Incas Established Lima, capital of Peru
What was the encomienda system? Spaniards were given land and a grant of indigenous people in the Americas that they could demand tribute from in the form of gold/silver or labor. In return they were to protect and Christianize the indigenous people.
Who was at the top of the social class system in New Spain / Peru? Peninsulares, Spanish nobles
What types of tribute did the Spanish demand from the indigenous people? Gold/silver or labor in the mines/fields
What were the Spaniards supposed to provide for the indigenous people? Protection, Christian religion, and education
How did the system of mercantilism work? Colony sent mother country raw materials and then purchased finished goods from mother country. Colony was not allowed to industrialize or trade with other nations.
Why did mercantilism make the Spanish colonists mad? They were limited in how much money they could make because they could only export raw materials to the mother country
Who was Simon Bolivar? Famous independence leader. Helped free future countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama from Spain and eventually all of South America. Bolivia is named after him.
Who was Miguel Hidalgo? Crillo/creole priest from Mexico. Rallied mestizos and Native Americans to rebel against the Spanish and demand their homeland back. He was captured and executed by the Spanish.
How did Brazil become independent? The King of Portugal lived in Brazil for a time and then left his son, Dom Pedro, in charge when he moved back to Portugal. Dom Pedro declared Brazil independent with himself as emperor. Later Dom Pedro’s son gave up the throne so that Brazil could become
Created by: kwaltzer23



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