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PhySci EOC List 1

The larger an object's mass, the (larger or smaller) the inertia? Larger
What is the tendency of matter to resist change in motion? inertia
What happens to a solid object whose density is less than water and it is placed in the water? it sinks to the bottom
What is weight? the gravitational force on an object
After pouring 3 liquids into a beaker, the green one sinks to the bottom. What would that tell you? The green liquid is the densest
What does the volume tell us? the amount of space an object occupies
What does mass tell us? it measures the amount of mass in an object
The explosion of fireworks is an example of what kind of change? chemical change
Changes of state (solid to liquid to gas) is an example of what kind of change? physical change
Something that is malleable is what? is able to be made into thin sheets
What is the relationship of volume and mass? density
What is electrical conductivity? the ability to conduct an electric currect
A change in form that does not change a substances identity is called this.. physical change
When a substance has changed into a new substance we know that this kind of change has taken place... chemical change
Reactivity is a part of a(physical or chemical) change chemical
What is solubility? the ability of a substance to dissolve
What is a physical property? a property that can be observed or measured such as color, state or hardness
What are some examples of a chemical change? rusted metal, sour milk, digested food
What is reactivity? the ability of a substance to combine and form other substances
What is flammability? the ability of a substance to burn
Why does ice float in liquid water? The ice's density is lower than the water
How do you find the density of an object? Mass/Volume
physical change a change that does not result in a new substance
chemical change a change or reaction that creates a new substacne
solid always viberating close together
liquid moves somewhat fast not very close
gas fast and far apart
plasma super hot and only is stars and lightning
vaporization liquid to gas
condesation gas to liquid
freezing liquid to solid
melting solid to liquid
atom smallest particale that can be called an element cant be seperated any further has protons neutrons and electrons
element pure substance cant be broken- no two are the same
nucleus location center of an atom
proton positive in the nucules the atomic number
neutron neutral charge in the nuclues the atomic mass rounded minus the atomic number
electron negetive in the cloud around the nuclues atomic number
non metals not mallible or conductive low density and low melting point
metals conduct heat and electricity are malliable
groups on per. table alkiai; alkiali earth metals; transiton metals; inner transtion metals; halogens; noble gases
atomic number number or protons and electrons
atomic mass protons + neutrons
atomic symbol idenification
isotope the possible different versions of an element
ionic bond opposite charged atoms stick together
covalent bond bond when 2 atoms share a valence electron
Mass Number Protons + Neutrons
Atomic Number Protons
- 1 charge Electron
Mass Number - Atomic Number Neutrons
Particles with significant mass Protons and Neutrons
Determines what element an atom is Protons
Exist in a "cloud" Electrons
Are found in the nucleus Protons and Neutrons
Changing these will only change the mass of the atom Neutrons
Changing these will change the charge of an atom but not the mass Electrons
Changing these will change the type of atom Protons
Particles on the highest energy level valence electrons
Highest number of electrons in a valence shell 8
These match the number of protons in a neutral atom electrons
An atom with a charge (not neutral) ion
These are gained or lost to form an ion electrons
An atom that has gained electrons Anion
An atom that has lost electrons Cation
Compare these particles to discover the charge of an atom Protons and Electrons
Types of Pure substances Elements and Compounds
Elements in Group 1 Alkali Metals
Elements in Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
Elements in Group 3-12 Transition Metals
Elements in Group 17 Halogens
Elements in Group 18 Noble (or Inert) Gases
Elements on the left side of the Periodic Table (Most of the elements) Metals
Elements on the right side of the Periodic Table Nonmetals
Columns on the periodic table are called Groups
Rows on the periodic table are called Periods
You look at this on the periodic table to know how many energy levels an atom has Periods
You can look at this on the periodic table to quickly know how many valence electrons an atom has Groups
This is what determines the order of elements on the periodic table Atomic Number
2 or more elements chemically bonded together Compound
2 or elements physically put together Mixture
Water is classified as a ... Compound
Air is classified as... Mixture
Homogeneous mixtures are usually Solutions
Elements are represented by... Symbol
Compounds are represented by... Formula
Elements here have 3 valence electrons Group 13
Elements here have a full valence Group 18
Elements here have 1 valence electron Group 1
Elements here want to gain 1 electron Group 17
Elements here want to lose 1 electron Group 1
Elements here want to lose 3 electrons Group 13
Brittle, often gas at room temperature, non-conductive Nonmetals
Shiny, malleable, conductive Metals
How is the periodic table arranged? Atomic number (protons).
What are the rows called? A period.
How are periods determined? By the amount of energy levels.
What are columns called? Groups or families.
How are groups and families determined? By the amount of valence electrons.
What's the oxidation number of Alkali Metals Family? 1
What's the oxidation number of Alkaline Earth Metals Family? 2
What's the oxidation number for the Boron Family? 3
What's the oxidation number for the nitrogen family? -3
What's the oxidation number for the Oxygen Family? -2
What's the oxidation number for the Halogens family? -1
What's the oxidation number of the Noble Gases Family? 0
What are valence electrons? They are on the very last/outside energy ring of an atom.
What is a stable atom? When all of its energy levels are filled.
Where are the most reactive metals? To the left and down the table. Alkali Metals.
Where are the most reactive nonmetals? To the right and up the table. Halogens.
What are the most nonreactive elements? The Noble Gases.
What is the zigzag line? Metalloids.
What's to the left of metalloids? Metals.
What's to the right of metalloids? Nonmetals.
How many elements are liquids at room temperature? Two.
Conservation Of Mass "Mass Cannot Be Created Or Destroyed"
Compound A Mixture With Two Or More elements
Molecule Group Of Atoms Bonded Together
Covalent Compound Between 2 nonmetals
Ionic Compound Between A Metal And Nonmetal
Lewis Dot Structure way to see how compounds from using their valence electrons
Substance Something that can't be changed, pure.
Solution Another word for heterogenous mixture
precipitate A solid formed from crystallization.
solute Substance that is dissolved or seemed to disappear
Solvent Substance that is dissolved from the solute
Heterogeneous A mixture that is not evenly mixed
Homogeneous mixture A mixture that is evenly mixed
physical change when the appearance changes, not the substance
Vaporization When a liquid turns into a gas
Condensation gas changes to liquid
sublimation solid to gas
deposition gas changed to solid
chemical change substances change to different substances
compound two or more atoms (elements) chemically bonded together by a chemical reaction. ex. NaCl
covalent bond When atoms share valence electrons to feel stable. When two non-metals bond together.
covalent bond properties These are weak bonds. They have low melting and boiling points. ex. H20
element Smallest form of matter. Cannot be broken down into a smaller substance. Ex. Au
Group 1 Easier to bond with because it has less valence electrons to get rid of. (1 valence e-)
Group 14 Hard to bond with because it needs to add or lose 4 electrons to feel stable.
Group 17 Easier to bond with because it only needs one more electron to be full. (It has 7 valence e-)
hydrogen bond when water molecules bond to other water molecules.
ionic bond When ions of opposite charges are attracted to one another and bond. When a nonmetal and a metal bond together.
ionic bond properties These are strong bonds. They have high melting and boiling points. Ex. CaCl2
ions Atoms that gain or lose electrons and will have a positive or negative charge.
isotopes Atoms that gain or lose neutrons. They will have a neutral charge and their mass will change.
Law of Conservation of Mass Mass cannot be created or destroyed. This means the mass before a chemical reaction has to be the same after a reaction.
metallic bonds When two metal atoms bond together by loosely held together valence electrons. They conduct electricity, have luster, are malleable, and ductile.
metals are on the left side of the periodic table.
Non-metals are on the right side of the periodic table.
metalloids Can act as a metal or a non-metal. These elements border the stair steps of the periodic table.
Positive Charged Ion Happens when an atom loses electrons.
Negative Charged Ion happens when an atom gains electrons.
Cation A positive ion
Anion A negative ion
Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of radiation by an unstable atomic nucleus
Half-life length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
What do we call an atom that has lost or gained electrons Ion
An ion that has lost electrons becomes more Positive
An ion that has gained electrons becomes more Negative
Electrons have a positive or negative charge? Negative
A positively charged ion is called a Cation
A negatively charged ion is called an Anion
The nucleus is made up of Protons and neutrons
Protons are positively or negatively charged? Positive
Atoms will lose or gain electrons in order to get a Full outer shell
Elements in group 2 will always try to Lose or Gain 2 electrons? Lose 2 electrons
The aluminium atom loses 3 electrons and is written as Al+3
Why do group 8 not lose or gain electrons They already have a full outer shell
An isotope is an atom of an element that has a different mass number due to A different number of neutrons in the nucleus
Atomic number tells us: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
The mass number tells us: The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
The atomic mass of elements on the periodic table is not a whole number because: It is the average of all the isotopes of each elements.
The isotope of carbon that is used in archaeology to date artifacts is called: Carbon-14
A sulfur atom with 16 protons, 16 electrons and 16 neutrons has a mass number of: 32
A sodium ion has 11 protons, 12 neutrons and has +1 charge. How many electrons does it have? 10
attractive force that holds different atoms together to make a compound chemical bond
two or more elements joined together in a certain ratio compound
a diagram to show how the atoms in a compound are connected; uses chemical symbols to represent the atoms structural formula
results in a substance that is a strong solid with a high melting/boiling point crystal (network structure)
determines whether a substance is a solid, liquid or gas at room temperature attractions between the molecules
interact to form bonds between atoms valence electrons
number of valence electrons to make a "full" outer shell in MOST elements 8
bonds formed when a positive ion and a negative ion are attracted to each other ionic bond
form positive ions (are electron donors) metals
form negative ions (are electron takers) nonmetals
formed by the transfer of electrons ionic bond
tells the ratio of ions in an ionic compound formula unit
do not conduct electricity unless they are dissolved in water ionic compounds
bonds that form between metal atoms that cause them to pack together and allow them to conduct electricity metallic bonds
bonds formed between nonmetals covalent bonds
bonds formed between a metal and a nonmetal ionic bond
bonds formed when atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons covalent bonds
a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the electrons are NOT shared equally, forming a sort of positive end and negative end of the molecule polar covalent bond
NaCl sodium chloride
K₂O potassium oxide
Li₃N lithium nitride
MgCl₂ magnesium chloride
CaO calcium oxide
Sr₃P₂ strontium phosphide
BaBr₂ barium bromide
Al₂S₃ aluminum sulfide
Rb₂Te rubidium telluride
CsCl cesium chloride
In₂O₃ indium oxide
Na₂Se sodium selenide
KBr potassium bromide
KBr potassium phosphide
MgO magnesium oxide
CaF₂ calcium fluoride
AlI₃ aluminum iodide
KCl Potassium Chloride
CaBr₂ Calcium Bromide
Rb₂S Rubidium Sulfide
Chemical Nomenclature the systematic naming of chemical compounds
Binary compound molecule made of 2 elements
Prefix for 1? Mono
Prefix for 2 Di
Prefix for 3 Tri
Prefix for 4 Tetra
Prefix for 5 Penta
Prefix for 6 Hexa
Prefix for 7 Hepta
Prefix for 8 Octa
Prefix for 9 Nona
Prefix for 10 Deca
CO₂ Carbon dioxide
N₂O5 Dinitrogen pentaoxide
Ionic Bond Electrons are transfer Loose electrons Are Cations
Covalent Bond Electrons are share
Noble gases element neither receives or loses electrons
non polar electrons equally shared
polar electrons NOT equally shared
Ionic bonds dissolve easily in water form solids with high melting temperatures. conduct electricity.
Valence electrons outermost electrons
Dinitrogen monoxide N₂O
lithium iodide LiI
lithium oxide Li2O
lithium sulfide Li2S
beryllium fluoride BeF2
beryllium sulfide BeS
boron sulfide B2S3
copper (I) bromide CuBr
copper (I) iodide CuI
aluminum oxide Al2O3
aluminum nitride AlN
aluminum phosphide AlP
magnesium bromide MgBr2
magnesium oxide MgO
magnesium nitride Mg3N2
potassium fluoride KF
potassium oxide K<sub>2</sub>O
calcium bromide CaBr2
iron (II) chloride FeCl2
What is the release of particles and energy from nuclear decay? radioactivity
Why is carbon 14 radioactive? its ratio of protons to neutrons is not stable
On what does the stability of an isotope’s nucleus depend? the ratio of protons to neutrons
What radiation can be stopped with a sheet of paper? alpha particles
What is the time it takes for the ½ of the nucleus in a radioactive sample to decay? half-life
What is the process of changing one element into another through nuclear decay? transmutations
What do scientists use Carbon-14 for? to calculate the age of once living things EX: bones
What type of radiation penetrates thick metals and concrete? gamma rays
Name the three types of radiation. alpha, beta, gamma
Which type of particle occurs when high speed electrons are emitted from a nucleus? beta particles
What type of radiation can be stopped with a thin sheet of metal? beta radiation
What radiation is made of two protons and two neutrons? alpha radiation
What happens when the strong force is not big enough to hold the nucleus together? the nucleus decays or breaks down giving off radiation
What device detects radiation by producing a current and ‘clicking’? Geiger counter
What did Marie Curie discover? radioactive Radium and Polonium
Who discovered radioactivity and how? Bequerel with uranium and a photographic plate
What radiation is electromagnetic waves with high-frequency energy? gamma radiation
What causes protons and neutrons to be attracted to each other in the nucleus? strong force
Why is carbon-14 radioactive? its ratio of protons to neutrons is 6/8
How does carbon dating work? the ratio of C-12 to C-14 twlls how many half-lifes has passed
What is the process of splitting a nucleus into two smaller nuclei releasing a huge amounts of energy? nuclear fission
What is the process of combining together 2 nuclei with low masses to make one larger one? This also releases huge amounts of energy. nuclear fusion
What type of reaction is used in a nuclear power plant? Nuclear fission reaction
How is nuclear fission controlled in a power plant? control rods that absorb some of the neutrons which split atoms
What type of reaction takes place in the sun and stars? Nuclear Fusion reaction
What is the range of atomic numbers of elements whose isotopes are all radioactive? all elements past #83
Name cons to nuclear power. radioactive waste is produced and there is no way to store it, if something goes wrong, radioactivity is released into the environment
Name pros of nuclear power. lots of energy from little fuel, no pollutants into air, no carbon dioxide released into air
How is radioactivity useful in medicine? radioactive tracers used to detect problems, radiation can kill cancer cells
Created by: jaredlovering